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Friday, December 31, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 37 - 42

Gita Series – 117: Chapter - X. Verse 37 – 42
 
I am Kṛṣṇa among Vṛṣṇi-s, Arjuna among Pāṇḍava-s, Vyāsa among sages, Śukrācārya among the wise, the subduing power of the rulers, prudence among those who seek to conquer, silence among secrets, knowledge among the knowers. Arjuna, I am the seed of all beings and none can be mobile or torpid without Me. There is no limit to My Divine Glories. This is only a brief of my manifestations. Whatever is brilliant, glorious or powerful in any being, know that to be a part of My Divine Glory. What are you going to gain in knowing all these details Arjuna? It is enough to know that I hold the entire universe by a fraction of my Yogic Power
 
Vṛṣṇi is a dynasty in which Kṛṣṇa was born. The point driven home by the Lord is here that if someone considers Him as an ordinary human, he remains deluded by ignorance. Kṛṣṇa makes a reference to Arjuna, as Arjuna is not only a sincere disciple of Kṛṣṇa, but also valorous among the Pāṇḍava-s. In fact, Arjuna’s elder brother Yudhiṣṭhira is highly pious and known for his virtues. In spite of this fact, Kṛṣṇa chooses Arjuna because Arjuna has more knowledge about the Self due to his closeness with Kṛṣṇa. It is also said that Árjuna was the best disciple of Kṛṣṇá but not the best among the five Pāṇḍava-s. This position was only gained by Yudhiṣṭhira who attained Kṛṣṇá's abode by keeping his own physical body due to his superb wisdom.
 
It is not surprising that Kṛṣṇa has made a reference to the great sage and author of almost all the epics, Vyāsa. It is to be remembered that Bhagavad Gita is also one of the master pieces of Vyāsa. Śukrācārya is the guru of demons and known for his wisdom. He is posited as planet Venus in the solar system. For rulers, the capacity to execute his power of authority is important. Kṛṣṇa says that He is that subduing power. For those who want to conquer, apart from might, prudence of planning is more important to achieve a comfortable victory. Any secret can be maintained if silence is practiced. For the wise, knowledge is their asset and they are known as wise only because of their knowledge.
 
After having said all this, Kṛṣṇa begins to windup this chapter. He says He is the cause for both movable and immovable. The glory of the Brahman cannot be truly described as He is the embodiment of glories. But this does not mean that the Brahman represents only the good. He is also present in evils as He is omnipresent. But, only the positive side is projected with intent to develop positive attitudes of spiritual aspirants. Having talked only about a miniscule of His Divine Glories, Kṛṣṇa tells Arjuna that such detailed elaborations are not needed to understand the Brahman. It is sufficient to say that the entire universe is just a fraction of the yogic power of the Lord. Only with a fraction of His yogic power, the inconceivable universe is created, sustained and dissolved, yuga after yuga.
 
CHAPTER X OF BHAGAVAD GITA CONCLUDED

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 32 - 36

Gita Series – 116: Chapter - X. Verse 32 – 36
 
Arjuna, I am the beginning, the middle and the end of all creations; among knowledge, I am the knowledge of Self; among debaters, I am the reasoning; among the letters, I am the letter / A; among grammar, I am the conjunction. In reality, I am eternal, maintainer of the universe having face on all directions. I am the all destroying death; I am the origin of all births. Among women I am Kīrti, Śrī, Vāk, Smṛti, Medhā, Dhṛti and Kṣamā; among Vedic hymns I am Bṛhatsāma; among Vedic meters, I am Gāyatrī; among the lunar months I am mārgaśīrṣa; among the seasons, I am the winter; among the fraudulent practices, I am the gambling; among the splendour, I am the Splendid; among the victorious, I am the victory; among the resolves, I am the resolute; among the goodness, I am the good.”
 
Kṛṣṇa continues to list out the best ones and says He is in that form. Instead of saying that He is Omnipresent, Omnipotent and Omniscience He refers to those who have excelled in a particular aspect. The Brahman is responsible for creation, sustenance and dissolution. Knowing about the Brahman is called knowledge, which is different from worldly knowledge or materialistic knowledge. Spiritual knowledge is the Supreme knowledge that elucidates the ways and means to realise the Brahman. Spiritual knowledge is Supreme because, it discusses about the subtlest of all, the Brahman, leading to liberation.
 
There are three types of deliberations – jalpa, vāda and vitaṇḍa. These are the types of deliberations and analysis to prove one’s point of view on a subject. Vāda is purely based on reasoning. Hence Kṛṣṇa says that He is the reasoning in such deliberations. Any deliberation without reasoning is the job of ignorant and not of the wise. When Kṛṣṇa says that He is in the form of अ or A, He actually refers to the first letter of any language, as all the languages are divine. Conjunction is a grammatical term that establishes a connection between two linguistic units, without which a sentence cannot be formed. Without a proper sentence, the intended meanings of different words cannot be expressed.
 
Time is a factor that is applicable only to mortals. In verse X. 30 also, there is a reference to time. There Kṛṣṇa means the division of time for mortals. Here, He means the time of the Brahman. Since the Brahman is beyond time, He is the beginning, the middle and the end of the universe. Brahman alone transcends time factor. Because of His of eternity, He is the perpetual sustainer of the universe, yuga-s after yuga-s. Brahman having faces in all directions is the characterisation of cosmic form of the Brahman and His omnipresence. This could also mean that He rules over both gross and subtle aspects of the universe. He is the supreme ruler of both birth and death. The intended message of Kṛṣṇa is to shed the ego during one’s life time.
 
Kṛṣṇa refers to Kīrti, Śrī, Vāk, Smṛti, Medhā, Dhṛti and Kṣamā to seven names and say that they are the best seven, amongst the women. The meaning of these proper nouns are, fame, fortune, speech, memory, intellect, steadfastness and patience. Kṛṣṇa says that women should be endowed with these qualities. They are the presiding deities of these seven great virtues associated with women. Again Kṛṣṇa refers to Sāma Veda. A proper recitation of Sāma Veda soothes the mind because of the melody associated with it while rendering. There are many psalms in Sāma Veda and Bṛhatsāma is one among them. These verses are in praise of lord Indra, the chief of gods. Bṛhatī refers to the meter of the verses. Gāyatrī is a well known meter of Vedic hymns. Most of the verses of Vedas are composed in Gāyatrī chandas, the best among all the meters.
 
Mārgaśīrṣa is one of the solar months comprising of second fortnight of December and the first fortnight of January. It is said that if one observes austerities during mārgaśīrṣa, when the best weather conditions prevail, they are rewarded by the divine. The month of mārgaśīrṣa is neither hot nor too cold nor rainy and hence, it is always pleasant. As per Indian lunar calendar twelve solar months are divided into six groups of two months each known as ṛtu-s. The month of mārgaśīrṣa falls under hemanta ṛtu, the winter season. For a good meditation, the climate should be neither hot nor cold. Because of the pleasant weather conditions, Kṛṣṇa makes a reference to this season. Gambling is considered as a fraudulent game because, for winning the game no skills are required. Victory is achieved by cheating others. This statement of Kṛṣṇa is a typical example of His omnipresence. He not only exists in good, but also exists in bad, as otherwise, omnipresence has no meaning.
 
Among the splendour Kṛṣṇa says that He is the splendid. It means that He is in the splendid, the cause of splendour. Among the triumphant, He is the victory as victory alone makes a triumphant. He is the resolve amongst the resolute. He is the good among goodness. Being good is the cause for goodness.

Thursday, December 30, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 27 - 31

Gita Series – 115: Chapter - X. Verse 27 – 31
 
Among the horses, I am the celestial horse Uccaiḥśrava, born out of the nectar; among the mighty elephants, I am Airāvata; among men, I am the emperor; among the weaponries, I am the thunderbolt; among the cows, I am the celestial cow Kāmadhenu; among desires, I am the sexual desire; among the serpents, I am Vāsuki; among nāga-s, I am Ananta; among the aqualtic creatures, I am Varuṇa, among the pitṛ-s, I am Aryamā; among the rulers, I am Yama; among the demons, I am Prahlāda; among reckoners, I am the time; among animals, I am the lion; among birds, I am Garuḍa; among purifiers, I am the wind; among the warriors, I am Rāma; among the fishes, I am the shark; among the rivers, I am the Ganges.”
 
Uccaiḥśrava is the name of the horse obtained during churning of the ocean by gods and demons. This horse originated along with the nectar. It is considered as the chief of amongst the horses because of its divine origin. This horse is being used by lord Indra. Airāvata, a white elephant, is also said to have been obtained while churning the ocean. This elephant is also being used by Indra. Emperor is the king of kings and hence considered as the supreme amongst the kings. Indra has got a thunderbolt as his weapon. This thunder bolt is the spinal cord of the great sage Dadhīci. This thunderbolt is described in Bhāgavata. The spinal cord of sage Dadhīci is highly energised because of his meditating power and devotion. Subsequently, this spinal cord was further energised by Lord Vishnu and handed over to Indra. Hence, Indra’s thunderbolt is considered as the most powerful weapon. Kāmadhenu is the celestial cow. She was also obtained during churning of the ocean. She is capable of providing whatever is asked for. (Churning of ocean: It is said that ocean of milk was churned by gods on one side and demons on the other side by using the serpent Vāsuki as the churning chord and a mountain as the churner. At the end of this mythological churning, nectar (amṛta) was obtained and shared amongst gods)
 
Krishna says that He is the desire of procreation amongst all the desires. Krishna draws a line between sensual pleasure and the pleasure of procreation. Pleasure of procreation is considered as one of the important and sacred duties of mankind. As far as animals are concerned, they do not indulge in sex as a duty. Hence any over indulgence in sensual pleasure is considered as bestial act. If someone thinks that indulgence in sex is a sinful act, it means he does not know śāstra-s. Śāstra-s only prohibits certain days when sex is to be avoided. Krishna says that He is in the form of sexual desire, subject to the precepts of śāstra-s.
 
Vāsuki is the name of a serpent that adorns the ring finger of Shiva. This serpent offered its services to be used as a rope during the churning process of the ocean. Ananta is a nāga. There is difference between serpents and nāga-s. Serpents are single hooded and nāga-s are multi hooded. Ananta is the name of the nāga on which Lord Vishnu has His famous yogic sleep. Varuṇa is the rain god or the god of waters. Because of the purification nature of water, its lord Varuṇa is adored as the best amongst purifiers. Since water forms the major portion of the universe, the chief of water is praised by the Lord. Pitṛ-s are the deceased ancestors. It is believed that when a soul leaves the gross body, it first reaches the world of ancestors for a sojourn. The world of ancestors is ruled by Aryamā.
 
Yama is the lord of death. Krishna has given a lot importance to the moment of death. At the time of death, Krishna repeatedly says that one should think about Him. According to Hindu mythology, Yama takes away the soul with him and gives its due treatment depending upon its karmic account. It is also believed that an afflicted soul undergoes two stages of punishment. One is in the astral plane without embodiment and another at earth with embodiment. Yama is the lord who decides how a soul is to be treated in the astral plane. These astral planes are known as heaven and hell. There are several versions of theory of incarnation. Yama is the god of justice and he never does anything that is prescribed as unjust in scriptures. He also guards the southern side of the universe.
 
Prahlāda belongs to demonic lineage. He developed great devotion towards Vishnu. Narasiṁha avatar of Vishnu is only to prove that His devotee is right about the omnipresent nature of the Lord. Time is the most important aspect of the universe. A man’s life span is decided by time. The duration of the universe is decided by time. All those that are bound by time are perishable. The Brahman alone is beyond time, hence He is Imperishable. Lion is known as king of animal kingdom and hence considered as supreme amongst animals. Garuḍa is a mythical bird and is considered as the vehicle of Vishnu. Apart from water, Krishna says that wind is also a purifier. Water is a gross purifier and wind is the subtle purifier. Only the wind gets converted into prāṇa and purifies the body.
 
The main character of the famous epic Rāmāyaṇa is Śrī Rāma, known for His virtuous deeds. He is also a great warrior. Both Śrī Rāma and Śrī Kriṣṇa are the incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu. Shark is one of the biggest and mightiest of aquatic kingdom. The river Ganges is considered to be most sacred river and is said to originate from the heavens and flows across after washing the sacred feet of the Lord Viṣṇu. There are different stories associated with the origin of the river Ganges.
 
Krishna has thus identified Himself with the best amongst different activities of life. Krishna would not have dealt in such a great length merely to describe the best amongst His creations. There are subtle interpretations to each of these bests. His Krishna discreetly makes a reference to kuṇḍalinī energy through these verses. For example, Ganges is said to represent the spinal cord and Śrī Rāma is the symbolic representation of sense control.

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 23 - 26

Gita Series – 115: Chapter - X. Verse 23 – 26
 
Among the eleven Rudras-s, I am Śiva; among the Yakṣa-s and Rākṣasa-s I am Kubera; among the eight Vasu-s, I am the god of fire; among the mountains, I am the Meru; among the priests, I am their chief Bṛhaspati; among the war generals, I am Skanda; among the waters, I am the ocean; among the great seers, I am Bhṛgu; among words, I am the sacred syllable OM; among the offerings, I am the japa; among the immovable, I am the Himālaya; among the trees, I am Aśvattha; among the celestial sages, I am Nārada; among the Gadharva-s, I am Citraratha; among the Siddha-s I am the sage Kapila.”
 
Krishna continues to declare His manifested forms. It is to be understood that every manifestation is nothing but the reflection of the Brahman. Krishna refers to the best amongst different types of His manifestations.
 
Rudra is explained as “forcibly leading this creation upwards. He puts down all those who arrogantly obstruct His courses and kills the evil opponents. Though thus, terrible, he is beneficent and compassionate to the distressed.” (Source: Secrets of Rig Veda by R.L. Kashyap). There are said to be eleven Rudra-s known as Ekādaśa Rudra-s (ekādaśa means eleven) and they are Hara, Bahurūpa, Tryambaka, Aparājita, Vṛṣākapi, Śambhu, Kaparadī, Raivata Mṛgavyādha, Śarva and Kapālī. Out of the eleven Rudra-s, Śṁbhu is Śiva, the chief amongst the Rudra-s.
 
Yakṣa-s are a class of demigods and goddesses. Chief among them is Kubera, the one who protects the wealth. Yakṣa-s are said to be protecting different regions and hence known as lokapāla-s. There are eight lokapāla-s protecting four cardinal and four intermediate points of the world.
 
Vasu-s are a class of gods who are highly benevolent. Their names differ in various scriptures. Vasu-s are eight in number and generally known as aṣṭavasu-s. According to Vishnu Purana the names of these gods are Āpa (Water), Dhruva (the pole star), Soma (moon), Dhava or Dhara, Anila (wind), Anala or Pāvaka (fire), Pratyuśa (the dawn), and Prabhāsa (the light). Amongst them Anala or Pāvaka is said to the chief.
 
Meru is the mythological mountain, the top of which is the Abode of Lord Shiva and His consort Pārvatī. Meru is also said to be one of the peaks of Himalayan Mountains from which the holy river Ganges originates.
 
Bṛhaspati is the chief of priests. Priests are those who conduct sacrificial rituals and are authorities on rituals. Bṛhaspati is the celestial priest for gods and goddesses. He is the son of the famous sage Aṅgirās. It is also said that Bṛhaspati shines in the form of planet Jupiter.
 
Skanda is the son of Shiva and Pārvatī and is also known as Kārttikeya. He is called god of war as leader of Śiva's hosts against the enemies of the gods.
 
Ocean is the only water body that does not dry and also occupies major portion of the earth.
 
Bhṛgu is the mind-born son of Brahmā. He is one among the ten maharshi-s (great sages) created by the first Manu. He is also said be the father of Goddess Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu. Bhṛgu is considered as one of the great exponents of mantra-s and has revealed a number of mantra-s to the world. It is also said that he tested sattva guna of Lord Vishnu by kicking on His chest and his foot prints still remain in the chest of Lord Vishnu. Bhṛgu is also considered as one of the nine Brahmā-s, who existed at different times.
 
OM or ॐ is symbolic representation of the Brahman. OM is most commonly known as praṇava. Every mantra and every sacred verse begins with OM. It is the Śabdabrahman, the sound form of the Lord.
 
Japa is considered as the most effective ritual. Mental repetition of mantra is japa. It is several times more potent than rituals and leads to direct perception of the Lord.
 
Himālaya mountain ranges are said to be highly sacred and full of natural beauty and even today, there are number of sages meditating on the Lord in Himālaya. Number of sages attained liberation by meditating in Himālaya mountain. On the top of this mountain rage, the chief of mountain resides.
 
Aśvattha tree (pipal tree and its botanical name is ficus religiosa) is yet another symbol of sacredness and is said to be the chief of plant kingdom.
 
Nārada is a celestial sage, also known as devariṣi (divine sage). Krishna makes a reference to Nārada for the second time here. The earlier reference is in the verse 13 of this chapter. Nārada is a highly evolved sage and sings songs in praise of the Lord.
 
Gadharva-s are celestial musicians and are very attractive to look at. They have a separate world called as Gandharvaloka. There are two types of gandharva-s, celestial and earthly. There are said to be sixteen celestial gandharva-s and Citraratha is the chief among them. Apsaras, their wives also belong to this category.
 
Siddha-s are also a kind of sages who are thoroughly perfected by perpetual meditation, as a result of which attained eight types of super human powers, known as siddhi-s. There are many such siddha-s living in astral plane even today. Kapila is famous among them. He is the founder of Sāṃkhya system of philosophy. Brahmā made His personal appearance and told Siddha Kapila that he is the lord of Siddha-s.
 
Thus, Krishna has chosen the best among the bests and says that they are His own Self.

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 19 - 22

Gita Series – 114: Chapter - X. Verse 19 – 22
 
Krishna replies: “Arjuna, I will tell you only the most important of My divine glories, as it is limitless. I am the universal Self seated in the hearts of all beings. I alone am the beginning, middle and end of all beings. I am Vishnu among the twelve sons of Aditi, I am the sun amongst luminaries, I am Marichi among the Maruts and I am the moon among the asterism. I am Samaveda amongst Vedas, I am Indra amongst gods, I am the mind amongst organs of perception, I am the consciousness amongst the living beings
 
Krishna says that it is difficult to talk about His entire glory, as It has no limitations. Every sentient and insentient being is His reflection. To cite an example, such beings are nothing but the reflection of sun in the water kept in different vessels. There is only a single sun and its innumerable reflections are nothing but mirror images of the sun. In the same way, the Brahman is only one and the entire manifestation is nothing but reflection of the Brahman. Due to the lack of discriminative knowledge, all the beings are seen as different entities. When Krishna says that His manifestations have no limitations, He means His Omnipresent nature. Krishna simply explains this by saying that He is seated in the heart of all beings as the soul. The process of understanding this is Self-realisation. Self mean the Brahman and self means the soul. Soul is nothing but His direct representation in a body. Only when his representative is realised within, the next logical step would be to understand His omnipresent nature or the universal brotherhood. The soul enters the body at the time of conception and continues to remain till the body falls. At the time of death, the soul leaves the body either to enter another body immediately, or to take a sojourn in the heaven or to merge with the Brahman, not to be born again.
 
Krishna now beings to declare the best among the bests, and cite them as examples of His divine manifestations. He is Vishnu among the twelve Āditya-s. The twelve Āditya-s are Dhātā, Mitra, Aryamā, Indra, Varuṇa, Aṁśa, Bhaga, Vivasvān, Pūṣā, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. They are also known as Dvādaśāditya-s (dvādasa means twelve). They are born to Aditi and aditi means boundless. Amongst the luminaries, the Lord says that He is the sun, as the sun alone reflects the Light of the Brahman. Other luminaries derive light from the sun for their functioning. Marut-s are the sons of Rudra and Pṛiśni. There are forty nine of them and known as storm gods. Best among Marut-s is Marīci. He is said to be in the form of a particle of light. Moon is the best amongst the stars and the natural satellite of the earth. Among the four Vedas, Sāma Veda is considered to be superior as it contains only verses and sung. Indra is the chief of gods and goddesses.
 
The Lord says that He is the mind among the organs of perception. Mind is considered as supreme as the mind is nothing but the power of the Brahman. Realising that mind is His power is realisation. Mind is the cause for both bondage and liberation and is the seat of faculty reasoning. Hence Krishna says that He is the mind among the organs of perception. Both mind and consciousness are the two important factors in Self-realisation. Consciousness alone has the capacity to manifest and His creation can be known only through the presence of consciousness. According to Dr. David R. Hawkins “from the Unmanifest to the Manifest, the energy of consciousness itself interacted with matter, and as an expression of Divinity, by that interaction life arose.” Therefore it is not surprising when Krishna says that He is the mind and the consciousness, the twin factors that are needed to realise Him in His true form.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 12 - 18

Gita Series – 113: Chapter - X. Verse 12 – 18
 
Arjuna opens his mind to Krishna: “You are the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier and the sages address You as the eternal divine Purusha, Self-originated and Omnipresent. The celestial sages like Narada, Asita, Devala and Vyasa also speak of You as the Brahman. You too proclaim the same. I believe as true, all that You say. Neither gods nor demons are capable of understanding Your glorious bodily forms. O, the Creator and Ruler of all the beings, gods and goddesses, the Lord of the universe, You alone know Yourself. You alone can describe Your divine glories that pervade the entire universe. O, Master of Yoga, through which process can I always stand eternally connected with You and through which of Your forms can I meditate on You? Krishna, please explain once again, Your yogic powers and eternal glory, as I do not derive satisfaction if I do not listen to your sweet words.”
 
Arjuna always remained as the best student of Krishna. Arjuna wanted Krishna to recapitulate what He had said earlier. If Arjuna was not attentive to Krishna’s sermons, he would not have mentioned the attributes of Krishna, as explained by Him earlier. Being a devout student of Krishna, Arjuna merely wanted to impregnate his knowledge with absolute clarity. He did not even want an iota of doubt about the Brahman. Arjuna is a totally blessed personality, as he seeks clarification from the Brahman Himself. Arjuna never wanted to take liberties with Krishna, though he is so close to Him. Arjuna is the warrior and Krishna is his Charioteer. The Charioteer form of Krishna is a typical example to show that the Lord can go to any extent to help His devotees who have surrendered unto Him.
 
When Arjuna refers to the four celestial sages, he means to say that highly evolved souls like the celestial sages refer to Krishna as the Supreme Brahman. By saying so, Arjuna emphasises that Krishna is the Brahman incarnate. So Arjuna takes this opportunity to get the maximum out the Brahman. Further, nobody can explain about the Brahman better than Krishna, the Brahman incarnate. As a true student, Arjuna believes in whatever Krishna says. Faith in one’s guru is the basic requirement in a guru-disciple relationship. If a student does not believe in his master’s teachings, the master will become aware of his disciple’s thoughts. A true master always puts his students to several tests. Only after the successful pass out of his disciples, the real guru-disciple relationship begins. Even today, true masters strictly follow this method. They are more concerned with quality of their students rather than the number of students. Krishna chooses only Arjuna to unravel His true nature, as Arjuna alone shines amongst His students. The reality about the Brahman cannot be told to everyone, as this is the ultimate in spiritual teachings. The quality and ability of the student is the only criteria to impart the ultimate knowledge. Arjuna proves himself as a sincere student by appealing to Krishna to recap what He had preached earlier. In order to make his master understand that he is not requesting for a recap because, he was inattentive earlier. Arjuna carefully chooses Krishna’s own words to address Him, to convey to Him that He was attentive all the time and all he needed this recap only to ensure that he has not missed out any of His teachings in the noisy condition of the battle field.
 
Arjuna ends his question by showering praise on the Lord, though he knows Krishna will not succumb to praises. But still Arjuna chooses to pay his obeisance to Krishna, not only as his spiritual master but also as the Eternal Lord of the universe. Arjuna also conveys to the Lord that he got used to His teachings and he cannot move forward without listening to Him. This also goes to prove that Arjuna has not yet transformed thoroughly, as he still nurtures traces of addiction.

Monday, December 27, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 10 - 11

Gita Series – 112: Chapter - X. Verse 10 – 11
 
“For those, who always stand united with Me by their love, I provide them with discriminative intelligence, thus enabling them to attain Me. By entering into them, I dispel their darkness, born of ignorance by substituting with the light of wisdom, thereby showering My Grace on them.”
 
When the aspirant puts a step towards Him, He puts several steps towards the aspirant, as the Lord is the embodiment of compassion. He is waiting for that aspirant to make the initial movement. He is ever ready to move very close to His devotee, as such devotees are rare to find. When an aspirant commences his spiritual journey, the ever compassionate Lord shows him the way by illuminating his path. The Lord Himself takes full control of the aspirant by imparting the Supreme knowledge that is required to realise Him. The inherent nature of a being is lack of knowledge about the Brahman, which is referred to as darkness by Krishna. The darkness of ignorance can be dispelled only with the light of wisdom. Krishna says that He is ready light the aspirant’s spiritual path.
 
After listening to Krishna this long, Arjuna has some more doubts. Being a true and sincere disciple, Arjuna never raised his doubts during Krishna’s sermons. He waited till Krishna stopped at a point.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 6 - 9

Gita Series – 111: Chapter - X. Verse 6 – 9
 
The seven great sages and their primeval four, the fourteen Manus are all devoted to Me and were born out of My will and from whom all the creatures of the world have descended. The one, who understands my Supreme divine glory, gets always established in Me through his unfaltering devotion and there is no doubt about this. I am the source of everything and from Me the entire creation evolves. Knowing this fully well, the wise constantly worship Me with unceasing devotion. With their thoughts wholly fixed on Me, by totally surrendering unto Me and by their mutual and crystallizing discussions on Me they always remain contended by taking immense delight in Me.”
 
Reference to the seven well known great sages and their primeval four refer to the personification of Self-realisation through devotion. These eleven seers had attained the absolute spiritual perfection. The seven sages are also known as sapta riṣi-s (sapta means seven and riṣi means a sage. riṣi-s mean the plural of riṣi.). They are Marīci, Aṅgirās, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vaṣiṣtha. There is also a reference to Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasiṣṭha, Kaśyapa, and Atri as seven sages. Only Vasiṣṭha and Atri find place in both the references. It is also said elsewhere that the seven sages refer to seven types of breath and there is a reference to this in Mundaka Upanishad. It is also said that names of the seven sages differ according to different manvantara-s. Each mantvantara comprises of millions of human years. There are fourteen such manvantaras and each manvantara is headed by a Manu. Manvantara is a symbolic representation of infinite time period. Primeval four refers to the psychic sons of lord of creation Brahmā and their names are Sanaka, Sana, Sanatkumāra, and Sanandana. These four were initiated by Lord Dakṣiṇāmūrti, a form of Shiva. The four sages are highly learned and said to be the foremost amongst all sages and saints. Hence, Krishna makes special reference to them. When Krishna says that the entire creation was originated from them, He means their position of being heads of different lineages, also known as gotra-s. The point driven home by Krishna is that, when seers of the highest purity are united with Me all the time, why not you? Krishna subtly tells Arjuna that he has to further evolve to attain liberation. It is important to remember that Krishna gives His sermons to Arjuna in the midst of a deadly battlefield.
 
Having made reference to those great sages, Krishna again proceeds to emphasise the importance of staying connected with Him all the time. This is possible by sincere devotion that ultimately gets transformed as true love for the Lord. Devotion is the initial stage and Love for the Lord is the advanced stage in spirituality. Brahman is the only source of creation. But due to ignorance, men resort to gods with forms, which means that men choose to worship the Brahman with attributes, His illusionary aspect, which is His māyā form. Krishna wants everyone to worship Him as the Brahman without attributes or nirguna Brahman, His purest form, from which everything originates and into which everything dissolves. In spite of this fact, the Brahman remains unchanged. The wise men come to know of this Truth by means of their rumination and experience. True spiritual experience begins to happen only after a long and intent period of proper meditation. Wise share among themselves their experiences, as the spiritual experience is not always the same with everyone.
 
Krishna again explains the basic requirements to transform oneself, like great sages and saints, who always remain submerged in the intent bliss of the Lord. Knowledge, intent concentration and unceasing devotion that get transformed into perpetual love for the Lord are the requirements of realising Him. Ego should be completely shed by surrendering to the Lord and that should happen through thought process. . There cannot be any other intervening thought that can exist in the mind while contemplating on the Lord.

Sunday, December 26, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER X. 1 - 5

Gita Series – 110: Chapter - X. Verse 1 – 5
 
The tenth chapter of Bhagavad Gita is named as Vibhūti Yoga, the divine glory of the Lord. This chapter has 42 verses.
 
Arjuna, listen to Me carefully once again. I am your well wisher, as you always listen to Me keenly. Neither celestial beings nor sages are aware of my origin, as I am the source of their origin. Among the men, he who knows Me as the unborn, beginningless and the Supreme Lord of the universe is devoid of delusion amongst mortals and is liberated from all his sins. Reasoning, intellect, lack of delusion, forgiveness, truth, self restraint, calmness, happiness and sorrow, birth and death, fear and courage, non violence, equanimity, tranquillity, penance, charity, fame, dishonour – all these diverse qualities of beings originate from Me.”
 
Arjuna is a devout pupil of Krishna. The whole of Bhagavad Gita is told to Arjuna by the Lord Himself explaining in detail every aspect of Self-realization. The love between Krishna and Arjuna was always mutual. The relationship between the two is consolidated, beginning from guru-disciple relationship and blossoming into unstinted love between them. The Lord is always looking for such a friendly relationship. Lord is not a frightening personality. He is always compassionate. He does not want His devotees to maintain distance from Him. But, due to ignorance, many prefer to keep distance from Him. Because Arjuna has developed such a close relationship with the Lord, He says that He is interested in Arjuna’s welfare and recapitulates His earlier sermons.
 
{I had a spiritual Guru, who reached His lotus feet couple of years back. I had the privilege of being with him all alone for about two hours daily for a period of six months. During these two hours, he used to explain about the Brahman and the path to realise Him. Even at the ripe age of 100, he could recollect where he stopped the previous day. After this period of six months and after a gap of another month, he summarised his six month sermons in fifteen days time. He did not remain in his body for long after this.}
 
The Brahman is the origin of everything and His own origin is beyond any stretch of comprehension. That is why the Lord is always described as beginningless. His origin is not known even to gods, sages and saints. In accordance with the theory of creation, they have also originated from the Lord. Those who are born in the universe are bound by the law of karma. Law of karma is applicable only to those who are born with ego, the human beings. When one’s karmic account is getting nullified, he pursues the right spiritual path and comes to understand the Lord in His true form. The first step towards realisation is getting past māyā. Māyā is also a part of the Lord that prevents an aspirant to understand the real nature of the Lord. It can also be said that māyā is the tool in the hands of the Lord to evaluate a soul. By will power and perseverance, if one is able to transcend māyā, there is nothing much left for him to realise the Brahman. The Lord now moves forward towards the aspirant to purge all his sins. Unless a soul is completely pure by eliminating any traces of karma, it does not become fit to get absorbed into the Lord. If one makes sincere attempt to realise Him, the Lord Himself comes forward to transform him. The Lord is more concerned in offering liberation than the aspirant. After all, the Lord is an embodiment of compassion.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 33 - 34

Gita Series – 109: Chapter -IX. Verse 33 – 34
 
Knower of Vedas and royal sages attain Me easily by their sheer devotion. Having attained the perishable and unhappy existence, they constantly worship Me. Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me and pay reverence to Me, thereby establishing a connection with Me and entirely depend upon Me and you shall come to Me.”
 
Throughout this chapter, Krishna stresses the importance of attaining Him. He is ever ready to offer liberation with open arms. He now summarises the preconditions to attain liberation. Liberation is something that comes to us cheap. It is not a perishable object. It cannot be obtained with a nurtured desire, nor is the fulfilment of a desire. Liberation is the only thing that is offered free to us. The methods to attain liberation also come free of cost. No physical strain, no punctuality, no co-workers, no differentiation between the poor and the rich, no recommendations. All that is needed is the purification of mind with the help of knowledge. There are only two requirements, one is the mind and another is the knowledge. Both are subtle in nature. The knowledge helps us to understand the Brahman; hence it is called the Supreme knowledge. It is called supreme knowledge, because it is needed to know the Supreme Self, again subtle in nature. There is difference between ordinary religious knowledge and Supreme spiritual knowledge. Ordinary knowledge can be obtained through study of scriptures and religious texts. This is associated with worshipping an object and performing rituals for the sake of the society. If someone does not perform a ritual prescribed by the society, he will be termed as an atheist. But contrary to the accusation of the society, a true spiritual man is closer to the Lord, the fact which is unknown to the society. A Self-realised person does not in any way behave differently from an ordinary person. He had already burnt his ego and as a result of which he has surrendered himself to the Lord. He always stands connected to the Lord. He knows with confidence that the Lord alone can give him the final liberation. As he is aware of this truth, he does not go after celestial gods. He directly goes to the Supreme Brahman with total faith that He alone is capable of offering the eternal liberation.
 
If all these prerequisites are complied with, he develops a deep devotion to the Lord, which subsequently transforms into pure love for Him. As he longs for the Lord, the Lord also yearns for His devotees. Love for the Lord quickly becomes mutual and at a point of time the Lord’s love for the devotee becomes more intent. Lord grants His devotee whatever is needed for him even without the devotee asking for it. His dependence on the Lord is reciprocated by the Lord. When the time is ripe for the devotee and when his karmas are totally spent away, Lord appears in person, takes the hand of his devotee and walks away with Him into eternity. After all, the Lord is the embodiment of compassion and He treats His devotees like His children.
 

CHAPTER IX OF BHAGAVAD GITA CONCLUDED

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 29 - 32

Gita Series – 108: Chapter -IX. Verse 29 – 32
 
I am impartial; there is none dear to Me or hateful to Me. However, those who seek Me with true devotion reside in Me and I also reside in them. Even if a perpetual sinner worships Me with sincere devotion, he should be declared as a saint, because of his righteous resolve. He transforms into a virtuous man and attains everlasting peace. Arjuna, know for sure that My sincere devotee never falls. Irrespective of gender and caste, whoever takes refuge in Me, attains the supreme goal.”
 
Every being is equally important to the Lord. There is no favouritism in the domain of the Lord. All are equal. Lord looks at His creations only from one angle, the intensity and truthfulness of devotion. If one is truly devout to Him, He reveals Himself to the devotee. A devotee’s visualisation manifests in any form, as the Lord is not bound by any particular shape and form. Such manifestations can happen in all the stages of consciousness, the active state, dream state, deep sleep state, turya state and turyatita state. Generally, such manifestations happen when one is in isolation. Brahman is waiting for His devotees to think about Him all the time. The devotion that is discussed here is not the type of devotion that is exhibited as a daily ritual. It is not the devotion by visiting places of worship. It is the devotion arising out of pure love, expecting nothing in return. Nearest comparison to this kind of love is the love of a mother towards her newborn baby. The devotion for the Lord has to be absolutely pure. The devotion has to transform into love for Him. The Lord is always waiting for this kind of love. When He sees the tinge of this kind of love in someone, He is ready to shower His grace on him, in some way or other. However the experience differs from person to person.
 
If a perpetual sinner begins to love the Lord, Krishna says that the sinner should henceforth be known as a saint. Saints and sages always dwell in the Lord’s domain. When Krishna gives such a great importance to a sinner, who is just entering the spiritual path, it means that his transformation is more important. But Krishna does not say that He will declare Himself to Him. To put it the other way, Krishna says that the change in his thought process is important. It is like rising up from an abysmal fall. He knows the pains of his fall and would never resort to his evil thoughts and actions again. As he knows the pains of his fall, he turns into a sincere devotee and leaves no stone unturned to attain the eternal peace. A mere thought of the Lord is more than enough for Him to shower His Divine Energy to protect him at all times. This energy enters into his body through brahmarandra, an orifice at the top of the head and through the back head chakra, the medulla oblongata. Once a sinner has transformed as a devotee, the Brahman never lets him down. He is not allowed to fall, as a sincere devotee is always protected by the Lord.
 
There are no preconditions to become a devotee. A man or a woman does not matter. A rich or a poor does not matter. Nothing matters when it comes to spirituality. The door to spiritual path is always kept open for anyone with sincerity and perseverance to enter and reach the destination. But the glittering and inducing world of illusion distracts and pulls down many, making them to not even look at the ever open gate to bliss and liberation.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 25 - 28

Gita Series – 107: Chapter -IX. Verse 25 – 28
 
Those who worship gods go to those gods. Those who worship ancestors reach the world of ancestors. Those who worship ghosts, reach those ghosts. But those who worship Me alone, attain Me. Whoever offers Me with utmost devotion and love, a leaf, a flower, a fruit or water, I appear in person and take that offering. Arjuna, whatever actions you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer in sacrifice, whatever you give in charity, whatever austerities you perform, offer them all to Me. If you do this, you will be freed of all your karmas, both good and bad. With your mind fixed on Me by way of renunciation, you will attain Me.”
 
What one always thinks, he becomes that, is the general principle. Successful men have become successful mainly because of their positive affirmations. Positive thoughts make a person highly successful. This is what Krishna says here. Worship is nothing but one’s faith. If one places his faith on a god, the sheer thought of the god makes him to become one with that god. But, as already discussed, such celestial beings are not empowered to give liberation. Krishna had earlier said that at the time of death, one should fix his consciousness in the place between the two eye brows, thinking only about the Lord. Though it is extremely difficult to do this at the time of death, it is worth doing that as that soul attains liberation. A few seconds of intense concentration liberates a soul. A wise man, who has pursued the right spiritual path not only by practice, but also personally experiencing the bliss of the Lord will be able to do that. His knowledge and experience makes the difference here. A wise man knows that he can be liberated only by the Brahman. Other celestial beings cannot give liberation, though they are capable of granting material prosperity. A wise man knows the difference between the eternal and perishable and he obviously chooses to go with the eternal. An ignorant man develops too many desires and he is not bothered about liberation, basically because he does not have faith either in the Lord or in liberation. The lack of faith makes him to get connected to celestial beings or ancestors who can offer temporary solutions. Only the Brahman can offer eternal liberation.
 
The Brahman should be worshiped with love and devotion. The Lord does not like grandeur, as grandeur is the greatest distraction. In the midst of grandeur, true devotion gets lost. In the absence of true devotion, the Lord does not even look at that place. He is willing to go to a place where someone offers him a drop of water with unstinted love and devotion. Festivities nowadays have turned into cultural extravaganzas. There can be celebrations, but not spoofed ecstasies. Pure love and devotion do not make noise. Krishna says that in those places where there is profound love for Him, He personally takes the offerings. Importance should be given to devotion alone and not to the associated rituals and offerings.
 
The next point that Krishna highlights here is the concept of surrender. A wise man understands that whatever he does is nothing but the will of the god. He has surrendered his ego, the deadliest enemy of mankind, as a result of which he does not take credit for his actions. On the other hand, an ignorant man is full of ego and takes credit not only for his actions, but also for others actions. His name and fame is important to him and he fails to realise that such elations are of impermanent nature. If one surrenders to the Lord, he is not affected by accumulation of karmas as the effects of his actions do not belong to him, but to the Lord, who is beyond karmas. Connecting to the Lord is a very simple process. One does not need a separate place to do this. The only requirement is to keep the mind free of other thoughts, and think about the Lord all the time, irrespective of any actions he does. When he smiles, the Lord smiles, when he cries, the Lord cries and when he walks, the Lord walks and when he eats, the Lord eats. Only such a person is liked by the Lord and surely not the one who indulges in vanity and pride. Lord is waiting for him to offer liberation.

Friday, December 24, 2010

MERRY CHRISTMAS

It is time to remember the famous messenger of the Lord, Jesus Christ. On the eve of his avatar in this world, it is worth remembering famous quotations from The Holy Bible.
 
“Neither shall they say, Lo here! Or, lo there! For behold, the kingdom of God is within you” (New Testament: Luke 17:21) referring to the presence of Lord within.
 
“Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it” (NT: John 8:44), a reference to the evil effects of māyā.
 
“And seek no ye what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, neither be ye of doubtful mind. For all these things do the nations of the world seek after: and your Father knoweth that ye have need of these things. But rather seek ye the kingdom of God; and all these things shall be added unto you” (NT Luke 12: 29 – 31) underlining the importance faith in God. Faith is the most significant factor in spirituality.
 
“For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them” (NT Ephesians 2:10) an indication that men are bound by māyā only temporarily.
 
“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and created he them” (Old Testament Genesis 1:27) emphasizing that the entire creation is nothing but the mirror image of the Lord, a confirmation of the omnipresent nature of the Brahman.
 
“Any every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name’s sake, shall receive hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life” (NT Matthew 19:29), the benefits of renouncing attachments and desires. The result of renunciation is the merger with the Lord, the everlasting life.
 
It is not only necessary to remember the sacred sayings of The Bible, but also follow those holy sayings in our actions. Jesus Christ becomes happier if one follows his teachings than merely reading them. Ultimately there is no difference between Jesus, Krishna and Mohamed. They are different incarnations of the Supreme to infuse knowledge to those who really need it.
 
Let this Christmas bring in universal brother hood, peaceful and eudemonic co-existence.
 
MANBLUNDER takes this opportunity to wish everyone a merry CHRISTMAS and a prosperous NEW YEAR.

Thursday, December 23, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 22 - 24

Gita Series – 106: Chapter -IX. Verse 22 – 24
 
Those who always worship Me with mind steadfastly connected to Me and thinking nothing else, I always protect them and personally attend to all their needs. Even those who worship other gods by reposing faith in those gods, through this is not the right way, only worship Me alone, because I alone is the enjoyer and Lord of all sacrifices. But they do not understand My real nature, hence they fall.”
 
Krishna begins to unravel the true nature of the Brahman. He once again stresses the importance of faith. Spiritual advancement purely depends upon the level of faith one reposes on the Lord. Deep affirmation always creates positive vibrations, paving way for the fructification of the affirmation. Suppose one suffers from ailment and if he repeatedly affirms that his ailment has gone, he gets cured fast. On the contrary, if he begins to pray that his ailment should go soon, his prayers are not answered. Prayers are meant for those who do not have faith in the Lord. The one, who has surrendered unto Him, never asks for anything from the Lord, as the Lord Himself personally takes care of all the needs of his sincere devotees. For the Lord also, it is hard to find a true devotee.
 
When a person has too many desires, he tries to appease different gods and goddesses. For example, to get wealth, he prays to a god, for health he prays to another god, etc. Ultimately, he wastes his solid time by offering prayers to different gods and goddesses and in the process forgets the Lord, who is the Supreme and under whose control, these gods and goddesses function. A spiritually ignorant person does not understand this reality and fails to realise the Supremacy of the Lord. Upanishads repeatedly talk only about the Brahman and ways and means to known Him. They do not attribute any physical form to the Lord. They say that Truth, Knowledge and everything else is the Brahman. Brahman is the most potent energy on which the whole universe rests. Failing to understand this reality, spiritually ignorant men worship demigods and goddesses and prolong their period of transmigration. As the Lord of all beings, Krishna says that such worships are not in the direction of attaining liberation. The ultimate aim of any spiritual aspirant is to become one with the Lord. A person with any other desire, other than attaining liberation, is not a true spiritual aspirant.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 20 - 21

Gita Series – 105: Chapter -IX. Verse 20 – 21
 
Worshipping Me through rituals and sacrifices makes one get rid of sins and leads him to heaven, where he enjoys celestial pleasures of gods. Having enjoyed such pleasures in the heaven for some time, he returns to the earth to perform rituals and sacrifices again, only to go back to heaven. He thus shifts between heaven and earth frequently.”
 
Krishna explains the merits of performing rituals and sacrifices. Performing such rituals and sacrifices do not go waste. Sacrifices are always preceded by a list of desires, which is generally known as saṃkalpa. One prays to God for whom sacrifices are done, to sanction the list of desires, for the fulfilment of which the oblations are offered into the fire. The concerned deity is invoked in the fire, which is known as sacrificial fire. Generally such rituals are done only to get certain desires fulfilled or to appease a certain deity who presides over such desires. These desires and rituals are performed only to enhance individual material prosperity. The prayers of the performer are fulfilled, provided they are performed as per the rules and regulations prescribed by the sacred scriptures. There is no abridged version for these rituals, though they are resorted to, in the present days. Such prayers are often granted, provided they are done with devotion, sincerity and strictly in accordance with the procedures. If the prayers are answered by the concerned gods or goddesses, the performer’s desires are fulfilled and he lives happily. By having resorted to such rituals, his sins also get reduced in proportion to the sincerity with which he has performed the rituals. As a result of appeasing celestial gods and goddesses, at the time of his death, his soul reaches the heavens and enjoys all the associated celestial pleasures. Once his karmic account is fully exhausted, he is born again as a human and begins from where he had left in his previous birth. As he has not resorted to realising the Brahman, he is being shunted between heaven and earth. It is important to remember that only his sins get reduced and not his karmic account. Realisation becomes possible only if one’s karmic account is close to zero.
 
Krishna says that rituals and sacrifices do not in any way cause the cessation of transmigration, which stops only if the soul merges with That Self Effulgent Brahman. It is said that souls have seven levels of existence, probably referring to the seven worlds of Gāyatri mantra. The first level is the mundane existence of the soul and the seventh level is the merger of the soul with the Lord. Those who perform these rituals are neither ignorant nor wise. Still there is a lot of scope for their spiritual evolution.

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 16 - 19

Gita Series – 104: Chapter -IX. Verse 16 - 19
 
I am the ritual, I am the sacrifice, I am the offering to the ancestors, I am the medicinal and other plants, I am the mantra, I am the ghee, I am the sacred fire, I am the oblation. I am the father, mother and grandfather of this universe, I am the supporter, worth knowing, I am the purifier, I am the sacred syllable OM, I am the three Vedas. I am the Supreme goal, I am the sustainer, I am the Lord, the witness, the abode, the friend, I am the origin, I am the dissolution, I am the imperishable seed. I am the solar heat, I send and withhold rain, I am eternal, as well as death. I am existence and non-existence.”
 
Krishna says that He is everything. His omnipresent nature is conveyed by Him. In every ritual, He is present or He Himself is the ritual. If the ritual is physically performed, He is there in the ritual. If the ritual is mentally performed He is also present there. There is an ancient saying that a human is like a place of worship (temple, church, masjid) and his mind is the sanctum sanctorum. The spirituality gets firmly rooted if pursued through a pure mind. The Lord is not the one who is someone external to us. Like He exists everywhere, He also exists within us. Searching the Lord within is realization and searching Him as an extraneous person is worship. For liberation, realizing Him is important, rather than worshipping Him as someone different from us. For example, when Krishna says that He is the clarified butter, the sacrificial fire and the oblations, the three important ingredients of a fire ritual, naturally the question arises, for whom the sacrifice is made? If He is in the form of our ancestors, then for whom offerings to ancestors are made? For the one who has totally surrendered to the Lord, such questions do not arise in His mind, as he considers everything and everyone as the Lord Himself. Lord becomes his friend, philosopher and guide and maneuvers him further either directly or indirectly to attain liberation. Such a person does not attach any importance to rituals. But, this does not mean that rituals are to be dispensed with. They are only the stepping stones into the spiritual world that is full of bliss. Even the sun awaits His command to shine and the rain awaits His command to shower. Upanishads say that only out of fear for Him, the sun shines and every other celestial objects carryout their duties.
 
Krishna makes every possible attempt to make His disciple, Arjuna. to understand Him thoroughly. As far as Arjuna is concerned, Krishna plays a dual role. One, as his Master and another as the Lord. Having taught him about the necessity to understand Him as the Brahman or the Lord or Brahma (Brahmā is different from Brahma. Brahmā refers to the Lord of Creation and Brahma is the Supreme Reality, also known as the Brahman), Krishna through these verses explains the attributes of the Brahman. To make Arjuna understand better, He chooses to explain difference aspects of His creative, constructive and dissolving powers. He could have simply chosen to say that He is the cause of every action that unfolds in this universe. But in order to drive home this point firmly, Krishna says that He exists in different actions and different things. The Lord sets an example for other masters to follow. The primary duty of a master is to infuse knowledge without the disciple nurturing any doubts. We should not forget that the Lord has two forms. One is His māyā form, the illusionary one and another is his Self-illuminating form, literally speaking, His formless form.
 
Krishna lays strong foundation in the first half of Gita and sets the trend for the second section of Gita where He discloses more of His secrets and finer ways to attain Him.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 15

Gita Series – 103: Chapter -IX. Verse 15
 
Others worship My Absolute formless nature, as their own selves through knowledge. Yet others worship Me through My diverse celestial forms.”
 
This verse is very significant. Krishna talks about inner worship and ritualistic worship. Inner yajna can be performed only by those who have acquired complete knowledge about the Self. That is why, in this chapter, Krishna has dealt elaborately on spiritual knowledge. Theory alone does not help in spirituality. A proper understanding of spirituality will lead to experience. Only by continuous experience, one can attain spiritual perfection. Without spiritual perfection, the process of Self realization does not commence. Sometimes, one is misguided by falsified spiritual perfection. The level of spiritual perfection can be put to test. Concern for other beings, withdrawal of egotism, getting rid of likes and dislikes, etc are some of the visible symptoms of spiritual refinement.
 
In general, as one grows old, one transforms from being ritualistic to spiritualism. Spirituality is beyond religions. Religions are only stepping stones into true spirituality. Religions render strong spiritual foundation. Lord is described in various forms, which Krishna calls them as celestial forms. In reality, Lord does not have a form. This is because anything with a form is bound by space and time and is perishable. Further, one with a form cannot be omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent, etc, due to the constraints associated with shapes and forms. The Lord is beyond all the limitations. If one continues to think that the Lord remains in a form, he continues to be ignorant. Ignorance never permits a person to attain spiritual goal. Rituals make a person to develop faith, which cannot be consolidated if one continues to be associated with rituals. Rituals should gradually pave way for meditation. Ultimately, the Lord can be realised only through mind. If one has developed the highest skills of visualization, he can visualize Him in a form. But this visualization is neither true nor eternal. It is the reward for his visualization skills.
 
Lord remains beyond all this. He is much beyond human comprehension. All that a human comprehends are subject to dissolution at some point of time. But the Lord is eternal. But the Lord can only be realized and cannot be seen. Krishna has elaborately discussed in the previous chapters the methods of realizing Him. Bhagavad Gita is one of the finest texts that deal elaborately on the methods of realizing Him.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 11 - 14

Gita Series – 102: Chapter -IX. Verses 11 – 14
 
The ignorant, though have assumed human forms, ignore Me, not knowing that I am the Great Lord of all the beings. These confused persons with vain hopes, futile actions and worthless knowledge have assumed demonical and false nature. But those who are pursuing spiritual path, knowing Me as the source of all beings and eternal, worship Me all the time with single minded devotion, always chanting My names and glories, working hard to attain Me with determined devotion and prostrate before Me, through meditation.”
 
Krishna does not consider those men who are not following spiritual path as human beings and calls them as demons. Seeking spiritual knowledge not only paves the way for liberation, but also makes the person highly successful. It is not that God makes him to succeed. It is because of his ability to concentrate and focus his mind he is able to perform better in his work environment as well. A sage always thinks that whatever he does is at the behest of the Lord. A mediocre person believes in the existence of the Lord and seeks His benediction before he begins a work. An ignorant man, afflicted by ego and selfishness does not even think about the Lord, loses his focus and ultimately end up in failures. An evil man never has concern for others and always indulges in evil thoughts and actions, finds no time to think about his Creator as a result of which, drowns himself in more pains and miseries without any chances for recovery. This is because, they are not even aware of the Lord. Krishna says such men are equivalent to demons, whose quality is always to inflict injuries on others. Such men could have attained many skills, but they are all considered as ineffectual. The basic knowledge in spirituality is faith. Because of lack of faith, their hopes do not fructify.
 
On the contrary, spiritually advanced persons have developed deep faith in the Lord. They understand and firmly believe that the Lord is present not only in them. but everywhere. During the initial stages of spiritual pursuits, they attempt to realize the Lord within and while making further spiritual progress, they realize His universal presence or His omnipresence. They have acquired Supreme knowledge and know that the Lord is eternal and is the source of all that exists in the universe. They always stand connected to the Lord, consciously all the time. They develop deep love for Him, which is also known as devotion. They do not approach Him for self betterment. They know that they would get all that is permitted by their karmas. For their own failures, they do not resort to blaming Him. In general, they do not fail, because they have the ability to concentrate. Irrespective of what is happening to them, they praise the Lord all the time. They always think about Him, focusing their mind only on the Lord. Even for a moment, they do not take their mind off from the Lord. They are in the stage of perpetual meditation, thereby establishing a two way communication between the Lord and themselves. The Lord takes them over for their further spiritual upliftment.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 7 - 10

Gita Series – 101: Chapter -IX. Verses 7 – 10
 
Arjuna, at the time of dissolution, all beings enter My Prakriti and at the commencement of creation, I send them back. Managing My Prakriti, I again and again send this multitude of beings, subject to their karmas. But, Arjuna, these actions of Mine do not affect Me, as I am unattached and indifferent to such actions. Having Me as Her supervisor, Prakriti produces both sentient and insentient beings and because of this the world revolves.”
 
Prakriti is the Primordial Nature, where creation unfolds. Prakriti is the Mother Nature. A soul is a part of the Supreme Soul or the Brahman. When a soul has to manifest, it has to conjugate with Prakriti. At the time of this colligation, karma embedded in a soul gets imbedded in that gross form along with the soul, ready to manifest at the appropriate time. Karma and soul can never be separated. At the time of death, the soul leaves the body along with the embedded karma and the body is absorbed by Prakriti. But, Prakriti is not something different from the Lord, but part of the Lord. If Prakriti is considered as different from the Lord, the omnipresent nature of the Lord would be lost. Lord is the static energy and Prakriti is the kinetic energy originated from the Static Energy. That is why Krishna says ‘My Prakriti’. At the time of creation souls are sent to impregnate Prakriti. At the time of annihilation everything gets dissolved into Prakriti which goes back to the Lord. When the annihilation is complete, there remains the Lord alone, all alone, as He is always.
 
At the time of re-creation, the reverse process happens. The Lord first segregates Prakriti from Himself. He then creates souls yet again to impregnate Prakriti and the process of creation continues for millions of years to get annihilated again. Creation and dissolution are like child’s play to the Lord. Krishna says though He creates all the beings, their nature and quality is determined by their past actions that get embedded in their karmic accounts. It is not the Lord who determines the quality of a person. A person’s thoughts and actions get recorded in his karmic account. Karma can be compared to an aircraft’s black box, where every minute detail of the flight gets recorded. The common saying ‘what you sow is what you reap’ is nothing but the reflection of one’s karmic account. If one thinks good and does good, his karmic account does not give him pains and miseries. Evil thoughts and actions cause serious affliction in karmic account that manifest as pains and miseries either in this life or in subsequent lives. Having associated with evil thoughts and actions, an ignorant man prays to the Lord for eradication of his pains and miseries. He fails to understand that he alone is responsible for his miserable state. Brahman offers only liberation and He does not answer prayers. Only one’s thoughts and actions are answers to his prayers. This is the divine law and the whole universe is bound by this law. Devotion is the best way to seek His mercy. That is why Krishna says all beings are subjected to karmic law. Though the Lord is the Supreme, still according to the karmic law, He is bound by His own acts. Karmic law does not bind Him, but for the sake of argument, He does not get Himself attached to His own actions. Though He performs creations, sustenance and dissolution, He remains indifferent to His actions. Hence, His own actions do not affect Him.
 
Krishna also says that He is not directly responsible for creation and sustenance as He supervises these acts through His own creation Prakriti. Prakriti derives energy from the Brahman. The energy derived by Prakriti is the Lord’s own energy and none other than the Lord has that kind of potent energy. Lord has merely transferred His own energy to Prakriti to effectively administer the universe. If one desires to merge with the Lord, he has to necessarily go through Prakriti, who alone is endowed with power to reveal the Lord. Prakriti on its turn produces both sentient and insentient things that are born and dissolved alternatively, till Prakriti considers that a soul is ripe enough to merge with the Brahman. Prakriti herself takes that soul to the Lord to merge with Him forever, though Prakriti is not different from the Brahman Himself. Otherwise, Krishna would not have said ‘My Prakriti’.

Monday, December 20, 2010

LALITA SAHASRANAMA BOOK

Preview of the book is now available in Google books.  There are minor differences between Indian edition and US EDITION. INDIAN EDITION does not contain guide to transliteration, uttra bhag, index of nama-s and bibliography due to space constraints.

The book can be viewed in Google books through the following link.





BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 4 - 6

Gita Series – 100: Chapter -IX. Verses 4 – 6
 
The whole universe is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest aspect. All beings abide in Me, but I am not present in them. No! All these beings do not abide in Me. They behold My divine power of yoga. Though I am the Creator and the Sustainer of these beings, My ātma do not dwell in them. Just as the wind moves everywhere in ether (ākāś) still remains in ether, all the beings originated from Me abide in Me.
 
Fundamental of creation is being expounded by Krishna. He talks about His omnipresent nature. If something is omnipresent, obviously it has to be the subtlest and formless. A comparison is drawn to ice and water. Just like water pervading throughout ice, the Lord interpenetrates the universe. Unmanifest aspect of the Brahman is His formless form. Brahman is smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest. Every existence, be it sentient or insentient is pervaded by Him. He controls all the three aspects, creation, sustenance and dissolution. The universe uses Him as the support to expand. When He says that the whole universe is pervaded by Him, it means His subtle form. When He says that all beings abide in Him, it refers to gross form. This saying of Krishna confirms Katha Upanishad which says that He is smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest. This reflects the omnipresent nature of the Brahman. He is the source of energy for the universe. Without this highly potent energy, there is no creation, sustenance or dissolution.
 
Krishna says that all beings abide in Him, but He is not present in them. He further says that all beings abide in Him and subsequently says that all things do not abide in Him. There is an apparent contradiction in what He says, possibly indicating the secrecy. On the face of these statements, one may notice the contradictory nature, but in reality this contradiction is harmonized. The Brahman is the creator, the sustainer and the dissolver. He does not perform these acts on His own. All these acts are done by His power of yoga. For example, clouds depend upon the sky for their existence, but clouds are not always present in the sky. In the same way, beings depend upon Him for their existence but He is not present in them. Sky is not in the clouds, but without the sky clouds cannot exist. Like sky giving support to the clouds, Brahman extends support to the universe. The whole universe was created out of His yogic power and the Lord merely acts as the supporting power. Though, the entire creation is within Him, yet, He is far beyond them. Still the entire creation does not have any other support other than Him. Therefore, it is logical to say that the entire creation abide in Him. Whatever is visible is nothing but the Lord Himself, as without Him, objects cannot be seen. Objects are nothing but His own reflection, but they are not the Lord. That is why Krishna says that all beings originate from Him as He alone supports them, yet He is not in them as they are only His reflections. Now it can be understood that there is no contradiction in what the Lord says. All the beings abide in His yogic power, His kinetic force. He remains all alone, invisible to anyone, yet casting His power on everyone, eternally remaining without a form.
 
Therefore, scriptures say that the Brahman is to be realised through His various vibratory and life sustaining forces. Trying to understand this Reality is spiritual pursuit. He compares His omnipresence to the ever persisting air in the ether that originated from the ether. In the same way, all the beings originated from Him always persist in Him. Though beings persist in Him, He does not change and always remain the same, like ether remaining always the same, though air always prevails.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER IX. 1 - 3

Gita Series – 99: Chapter -IX. Verses 1– 3
 
Chapter IX of Bhagavad Gita is known as “Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret”. This chapter has 34 verses and considered as very significant.
 
Arjuna, as you are devoid of quibble, I shall now disclose to you the secret knowledge of both nirguna and saguna Brahman, by knowing of which, you shall be freed from all worldly miseries. The knowledge of both nirguna and saguna Brahman is a royal science and royal secret, the holiest, most excellent, directly enjoyable, virtuous, easy to practice and imperishable. Those who do not have faith in this dharma do not attain me, causing further transmigrations.”
 
Arjuna is a good student of Krishna. He does not pose irrelevant questions to Krishna, thereby wasting the precious time of both the master and the student. The significance of pursuing spirituality with strong foundation is indicated here. Faith is one of the foundational aspects of spirituality. Faith leads to determination, will power, steadfastness, etc. Since Arjuna has immense faith in his Master, Krishna is willing to declare to Arjuna the royal secret about the Brahman without attributes or niguna Brahman and Brahman with attributes or saguna Brahman. If one is able to understand the mysteries of the spiritual path, the spiritual goal can be easily attained. There is no point in traversing a path, without knowing its destination. Unless one has complete knowledge about the path he is traversing, he cannot reach the destination with ease. Krishna highlights this point here. He says that knowing the proper spiritual path and pursuing it properly will free a person from worldly miseries. Worldly miseries do not end up in this birth alone, but also rears its head in every subsequent birth. The only solution to this is liberation.
 
Krishna says spiritual experience is enjoyable, as the aspirant enters blissful state when he makes substantial spiritual advancement. Bliss unfolds when the aspirant begins to develop the direct experience with the Lord. Spirituality has both theoretical and practical aspects as a result of which one first gains knowledge. As a result of acquiring knowledge, the aspirant begins to feel the experience with the Lord. The spiritual knowledge or the knowledge of Self realization is not like worldly knowledge that is subjected to modifications. The spiritual knowledge alone helps an aspirant to avoid transmigrations. That is why Krishna says that such knowledge alone is the holiest as it leads to liberation. For the same reason, He calls it as sacred, virtuous and permanent. Having elucidated the importance of divine knowledge, Krishna also says that it is easy to practice. Spiritual knowledge alone is permanent as it alone leads to liberation.
 
From the next verse onwards, Krishna is going to explain the intricacies of the highly revered spiritual knowledge.

Saturday, December 18, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 27-28

Gita Series – 98: Chapter -VIII. Verses 27– 28
 
No yogi gets deluded by knowing the secrets of these two paths. Therefore Arjuna, at all times remain firmly in yoga. The yogi who truly understands the merits of these two paths transcends all the rewards ascribed in the scriptures to the study of Vedas, performance of sacrifices, austerities, charities, and attains the beginningless supreme state.”
 
These two verses are the summing up of this chapter. Krishna has declared two paths, one is the path of light and the other one is the path of darkness. The first path is pursued by the wise and the second one is chosen by the ignorant. The illuminated path is the path of no return and the smoky path is the path of return. The yogi, who has really understood the Lord, purifies his mind by steadfastly fixing his mind on the Lord all the time, ignoring the sensory influences to cause any impressions on the mind is able to cut across desire, passion and attachment proceeds further towards the ever illuminating form of the Lord. His sole aim is to merge with the Brahman as he knows the miseries and pains of life that is caused by indulging in the material world. The yogi also knows that the pleasures of the materialistic world is not eternal and crumbles along with the body. The yogi has become wise by continuously working through his mind and realised that the Brahman alone gives the lasting solution of liberation. Therefore, the yogi chooses the right path, the path of light. As a result of choosing the path of light, he has gained enough knowledge and wisdom to stay connected with the Lord all the time, by simultaneously carrying out his worldly duties. He clearly distinguishes between the Real and illusionary world. As a result of his knowledge, he knows where to keep his consciousness at the time of his death. At the time of death, he is able to fix his consciousness more firmly with the Lord, as a result of which his soul traverses through the illuminated path, honoured by different deities like the lord of fire, the sun, etc. Finally, he merges with the Brahman and his further transmigrations come to an end. Hence Krishna tells Arjuna to become a yogi, always contemplating on the Supreme Self.
 
The union of Self with the self can be contemplated only through proper meditation. What is needed is only dedication and sincerity on the part of the aspirant. Krishna says even knowing of Vedas, performing sacrifices, austerities and charities do not yield quicker results than contemplating the Lord all the time. A perfect meditation transforms a yogi in stages making the yogi immersed in His bliss always. He utilizes the opportunity available to him at the time of his death and he fixes his consciousness on the Lord, rather more powerfully and firmly this time, to integrate with the Lord forever.
CHAPTER VIII OF BHAGAVAD GITA CONCLUDED.

Friday, December 17, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 23-26

Gita Series – 97: Chapter -VIII. Verses 23– 26
 
Arjuna, I shall now tell you the different paths pursued by yogis at the time of leaving their bodies, one to return and another, not to return. Self realised persons, at the time of relinquishing their physical body, follow the path of fire, light, day time, bright half of the lunar month, six month period of northern course of the sun and go to the Brahman. They are led to the Brahman by these presiding deities. The other path is where yogis leave their bodies during smoke(smoke is generated due to improper fire), night, the dark fortnight of the lunar month, six month period of southern course of the sun and are led by the presiding deities of the above and reach the moon. After exhausting the effects of their good karmas, they come back. The two paths, the bright one and the dark one are eternal. Proceeding through the first of them, the yogi reaches the supreme state never to return. Proceeding by the other one, he returns to the mortal world.”
 
There are two type of interpretations for these stanzas. General interpretations talk about time factor like day time and night time, bright and dark lunar fortnights and northern course and southern course of the Sun. According to this interpretation, if one dies during bright time, he reaches the heavens and if one dies during darkness, he reaches the hell. As the time of death in not in our hands, these verses of Krishna cannot be interpreted on the face of it, but one has to look deep into these verses. It is also said that those who leave the mortal world during brightness reach the heavens, where gods live and those who leave during darkness reach the world of ancestors at Moon, to be born again.
 
There are two paths after death. One is to merge with the Lord and another is to come back to earth again, after experiencing the reward for his past deeds. The latter refers to the sojourn of the soul in the higher planes of the cosmos and begins its transmigration again. These verses also say that one presiding deity hands over the soul to another deity till the destination of the soul is reached. If an attempt is made to expand the significance of exercising control over the soul one deity after another, it could mean gradual liberation or krama mukti. His liberation becomes gradual, but steady. It beings with the least powerful light to the most powerful Self illuminating light. This is the path of no-return where the soul becomes one with the Brahman.
 
The second path is the path of darkness which leads to the world of ancestors. This world is presided by the Moon. Moon always refers to sensual pleasures, which means that the soul has not been totally purified yet, to become fit enough to merge with the Brahman. His spiritual path is not yet complete, though he has made considerable spiritual progress. As a result of this considerable spiritual progress he reaches the Moon, continues to enjoy there and takes another birth to continue his spiritual journey from where he had left during his last life. He perfects himself during further births and proceeds towards the path of light for liberation. But a perfected yogi goes through the illuminated path in stages to ultimately merge with the Brahman.
 
The choice of the path is decided on the basis of one’s karmic account. Brightness indicates knowledge and darkness indicates ignorance. Brightness leads to the Brahman and darkness leads to transmigrations. The concepts discussed in these verses are explained in great detail in Praśna Upaniṣad.

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 20-22

Gita Series – 96: Chapter -VIII. Verses 20 – 22
 
Far beyond this unmanifest, there is yet another Unmanifest, which is eternal and does not get destroyed even when the entire beings are annihilated. The same Unmanifest is also known as Supreme Goal, My abode. Those who attain this highest state of Mine, are not reborn. Arjuna, that eternal Puruṣa (Purusha), within whom all beings exist and by whom all this is pervaded, is attainable only through steadfast devotion.”
 
Before proceeding with discussion on these verses, let us hear what the Living Master says about Brahmaloka, which has been discussed in the previous posting.
 
Brahmaloka is a little above the Māyātattva (tattva 6). As it is "still" material, it never touches the tattva 5, which is not material but completely spiritual. Therefore, being Turya a level belonging to tattva-s 3 to 5, where there is "still" a universe to be witnessed. Hence Turya is the Witness or the state of the Self as a Witness. In tattva-s 3 to 5, the ones who attained Turya have baindavadeha-s or bodies composed of Bindú, which is not material but spiritual.
 
Turyātīta is beyond Turya and therefore beyond the universe, whether in its material (tattva-s from 6 to 36) or spiritual (tattva-s from 3 to 5). Turyātīta is the very state of Śivá and Śákti. Both are aspects of the Highest Reality known as Paramaśiva. Hence, Turyātīta is the highest state a being can attain. Brahmaloka is only a little about Māyā, the deep sleep of ignorance. Even so, the limited beings cannot attain Brahmaloka except making tremendous efforts. Turya and Turyātīta can only be achieved by the most eminent among the sages.”
 
The Unmanifest that has been discussed in the previous posting is not the ultimate. The unmanifest referred in the previous verse refers to tasmāt avyakta. Tasmāt means that and avyakta refers to primordial nature or productive principle. Now, Krishna says that there is One beyond this. He has already made subtle references to this One in earlier verses as well. Now He elaborates on this. (The Living Master again clarifies the difference between Brahmā and Brahma. Brahmā refers to the Creator and Brahma refers to the Ultimate Reality. He also says that by using Brahman to mean both the creator and the Ultimate Reality, could lead to confusion in the minds of readers. Therefore, Brahman in our discussions means the highest Reality and not the creator who unveils of the act of creation. The creator is referred by Brahmā.)
 
What Krishna refers in this verse is the Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, much beyond human comprehension. This Ultimate Reality does not get annihilated during annihilation. He is eternal. During the process of annihilation, everything, including prakriti gets absorbed into the Brahman. After everything is annihilated, He alone remains in His full glory. When the process of annihilation is complete, He alone remains as bright as ever and as same as ever, in spite of the fact that, the entire sentient and insentient things got absorbed unto Him, including Brahma.
 
Brahman is also referred as Purusha by Krishna. This Purusha is the Supreme Goal for the purpose of liberation. One gets liberated by merging with the Truth, Knowledge and Bliss, by which He is known. He does not have a form. Krishna says that He can be attained only by pure devotion. Devotion is nothing but total surrender unto Him.
 
The Brahman can be summed up as the one who is the Supreme in everything. For example, He is the embodiment of truth, knowledge, bliss, etc. That is why Taittirīya Upaniṣad says that Truth, Knowledge and everything else is Brahmā. Krishna says that liberation can also be attained by pure devotion. Devotion is comparatively easier way to get liberated from transmigrations. But the devotion should be pure and humble. The Lord does not like pomp and vanity. Krishna addressed these verses in His capacity as the Brahman or Brahma, the Supreme Lord.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

BHAGAVAD GITA. CHAPTER VIII. 15-19

Gita Series – 95: Chapter -VIII. Verses 15 – 19
 
Those who are highly perfected merge with Me and are not subjected to rebirth, which is the abode of sorrow and perishable. All the worlds from Brahmaloka downwards are impermanent. But those who reach Me are not reborn. Yogis know that Brahma’s day time is several times longer than human day time and Brahma’s night time is several times longer than human night time. At the dawn of Brahma’s day all, the beings emanate from the Unmanifest and at the time of Brahma’s night all the beings merge into the Unmanifest. Arjuna, the innumerable beings, in accordance with their intrinsic nature, is being born again and again during the day of Brahma and repeatedly gets dissolved during Brahma’s night.”
 
Krishna continues to talk about rebirths. He says that the completely perfected souls merge unto Him and are not reborn. Transmigration is only for the souls. Gross forms that hold the souls within are not transmigratory in nature. Once the gross forms perish, they perish for good. During the next birth, the soul attains a different physical form, not necessarily a human form. If the soul’s karmic account is highly contaminated, it undergoes several quick transmigrations and experiences the pains of birth and death more frequently. Insects and moths have short duration of life. Those who remain ignorant do not understand the theory of transmigration and continue to indulge in evil thoughts and actions. Evil thoughts are worse than evil actions. Krishna says that any type of existence is full of sorrows and is always painful.
 
Krishna proceeds to say that those who are unable to attain the Brahman but reach any world up to Brahmaloka are reborn. It is important to understand lokas from its original perspective. Loka means world. Lokas in this context mean different levels of one’s consciousness. Different worlds represent different levels of consciousness. The lowest level of consciousness is one’s active state, when the mind is most active. Brahmaloka is the penultimate state of consciousness, say level of turyātīta. The state of turyātīta can be explained as the state of one’s consciousness where differentiation is completely dissolved and the whole universe appears as the Self. Even at this stage, one is subjected to transmigration. Beyond turyātīta, there is the ultimate level known as kaivalya. This is where one merges with the Brahman and further transmigrations of the soul comes to an end. Kaivalya is known as Krishna consciousness. Only in the kaivalya stage, one merges with the Brahman. Again, the merger with the Brahman does not happen by entering kaivalya stage off and on. Entry into kaivalya stage has to be perpetual for the cessation of transmigration. Therefore, Brahmaloka downwards mean the level of consciousness from turyātīta to normal active state. If one fixes his consciousness in any of these states, he is bound to be reborn. For the ultimate merger with the Brahman, however one has to transcend all these states.
 
The day and night of Brahma refers to the cosmic cycle. Day means action and night means inertia. Day means knowledge and night means ignorance. The Holy Bible also says “In the morning it flourisheth, and groweth up; in the evening it is cut down, and withereth.” (Psalms 90:6). Both Krishna and Christ have said this not without reasoning. It is said that one celestial day is equivalent to 360 terrestrial days. One human year is equivalent to one day and one night in the Brahma loka. This is with reference to time and space. When a yogi crosses time and space, he is not affected by terrestrial days and nights. Several celestial years form a yuga. There are four such yugas. At the end of yugas, the entire universe up to Brahmaloka gets annihilated. For the next yuga, creation is made afresh by the Brahman. Except Brahman and His cosmic energy, everything else gets annihilated. The expansion and contraction of the universe is directly related to light and darkness. Expansion happens during light and contraction happens during darkness. The Bible also unravels this process in Genesis.
 
Krishna says that all the beings, due to their inherent nature of ignorance, deluded by darkness are unable to attain wisdom. Such ignorant men continue to dwell in darkness and subject themselves to innumerable transmigrations and undergo pains and miseries. Krishna says that knowledge is a prerequisite to transcend time and space to merge with the Brahman. When knowledge is attained, the mind is cleansed and the process of Self realization begins. The duration of this process purely depends upon one’s perseverance and dedication.