आदित्यं प्रेक्ष्य जप्त्वा तु परं हर्षमवाप्तवान्।
त्रिराचम्य शुचिर्भूत्वा धनुरादाय वीर्यवान्॥ २९

रावणम् प्रेक्ष्य हृष्टात्मा युद्धाय समुपागमत्।
सर्वयत्नेन महता वधे तस्य धृतोऽभवत्॥ ३०

अथ रविरवदन्निरीक्ष्य रामं मुदितमनाः परमं प्रहृष्यमाणः।
निशिचरपतिसंक्षयं विदित्वा सुरगणमध्यगतो वचस्त्वरेति॥ ३१

ādityaṁ prekṣya japtvā tu paraṁ harṣamavāptavān |
trirācamya śucirbhūtvā dhanurādāya vīryavān || (29)

rāvaṇam prekṣya hṛṣṭātmā yuddhāya samupāgamat |
sarvayatnena mahatā vadhe tasya dhṛto'bhavat || (30)

atha raviravadannirīkṣya rāmaṁ muditamanāḥ paramaṁ prahṛṣyamāṇaḥ |
niśicarapatisaṁkṣayaṁ viditvā suragaṇamadhyagato vacastvareti || (31)

(The following two verses do not form part of Rāmāyaṇa. They are in the form of prayers to sun god)

सूर्यं सुन्दरलोकनाथममृतं वेदान्तसारं शिवम्
ज्ञानब्रह्ममयं सुरेशममलं लोकैकचित्त्स्वयम्।
इन्द्रादित्यनराधिपं  सुरगुरुं  त्रैलोक्यचूडामणिं
ब्रह्माविष्णुशिवस्वरूपहृदयं वन्दे सदा भास्करम्॥ ३२

भानो भास्कर मार्ताण्ड चण्डरश्मे दिवाकर।
आय्रातोग्यमैश्वर्यं श्रियं पुत्रांश्च देहि मे॥ ३३

sūryaṁ sundaralokanāthamamṛtaṁ vedāntasāraṁ śivam
jñānabrahmamayaṁ sureśamamalaṁ lokaikacittsvayam |
indrādityanarādhipaṁ  suraguruṁ  trailokyacūḍāmaṇiṁ
brahmāviṣṇuśivasvarūpahṛdayaṁ vande sadā bhāskaram || (32)

bhāno bhāskara mārtāṇḍa caṇḍaraśme divākara |
āyrātogyamaiśvaryaṁ śriyaṁ putrāṁśca dehi me || (33)

Meaning:

29) ādityaṁ - Sun, the miniscule form of Brahman; prekṣya – worth seeing or regarded; possibly referring to contemplation;  japtvā tu – meditating silently; paraṁ - supreme; harṣa - pleasure or happiness or bliss (along with goose bumps)  mavāptavān – attaining; trirācamya – doing ācamana (sipping drops of water straight from the right palm) three times; śucirbhūtvā – (thus) becoming pure;  dhanurādāya – taking his bow; vīryavān – the valorous (Śrī Rāma).

30) rāvaṇam prekṣya – having noticed Rāvaṇa; hṛṣṭātmā – experiencing bliss within; yuddhāya – for waging a war; samupāgamat – approaching very closely; sarva yatnena – all kinds of efforts; mahatā – mightiness; vadhe tasya – Rāvaṇa’s death; dhṛto'bhavat – present (in the battle field) with great resoluteness.

31) atha – after that; ravi – the sun; avadan – spoke (or conveyed through facial expressions without uttering any words); nirīkṣya rāmaṁ - on seeing Śrī Rāma;  mudita – delighted, joyful, glad, rejoicing; manāḥ - mind;  paramaṁ - extremely; prahṛṣyamāṇaḥ - glad, cheerful; niśicarapatisaṁkṣayaṁ - annihilating demons (Rāvaṇa and his warriors); anhividitvā suragaṇa madhyagato – in the middle of various gods; vacastvareti – hurry up.

Summary of verses 29, 30 and 31:

Verse 29 talks about how seriously Śrī Rāma took sage Agastya’s advise and acted on that immediately. He performed ācamana (taking water in the right palm and sipping it without establishing contact with the lips; this is done to purify the inner body; external body is purified through bath) three times (three times refers to reciting three names of Viṣṇu; (acyutāya namaḥ | anantāya namaḥ | govindāy namaḥ || अच्युताय नमः। अनन्ताय नमः। गोविन्दाय् नमः॥). After doing ācamana, he looked at the sun, His miniscule form. Having seen the sun, He became highly energised and determined to annihilate Rāvaṇa and other demons. (In the morning sun, if one exposes his/her back head (medulla oblongata)  to the sun, a lot of energy will flow into the body and keeps the body not only disease free but energises the whole body of the practitioner.) Having thus energized (realising His true nature), He took his bow and arrows and proceeded to the battle field. This can also be explained that Rāma realized His true nature (Brahman). This is subtly conveyed as looking at the sun.

Verse 30 says that Śrī Rāma became happy on seeing Rāvaṇa. On the grosser side, Rāma knew that He is going to kill Rāvaṇa in the battle field. As far as Rāma is concerned, He also knew that He is going to liberate Rāvaṇa and in fact this would make Rāma happier than merely killing him. Rāvaṇa was engrossed in penance for years and got several boons. There are several citations about Rāvaṇa’s penance. Though Rāvaṇa asked several boons to satiate his ego, still he had spent several years in deep trance, which made him on par with best yogis. He was killed in the battle field only because he had arrogance and ego. As he had already surrendered to Brahman, his further actions never affected his karmic account and he is all set to get liberated, by passing the state of jīvanmukta. Why Rāma should have experienced Bliss on seeing Rāvaṇa so closely? This explains Rāma’s love and compassion for Rāvaṇa. Rāma killed Rāvaṇa only in the state of Bliss and not in the state of anger.

It is important to know what Śrī Rāma spoke to Vibhīṣaṇa, Rāvaṇa’s brother after Rāvaṇa’s death (Canto 109 of yuddhakāṇḍa – verses 14 to 19). “Rāvaṇa has not met his death because he lacked in energy......He has fallen in combat for the food of the world even though he was endowed with terrible prowess and exhibited extraordinary enthusiasm of a very exalted type and always remained undaunted. Warriors who fall on the battlefield while remaining steadfast in the duty of warriors and winning in battles need not be mourned for. There is no occasion to grieve for his having been thought under the sway of death by whom, intelligent he was in all the three worlds........A warrior killed in action does not deserve to be mourned, say śāstra-s.” There are many such references about Rāvaṇa in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa.

Verse 31 says that sun god encouraged Śrī Rāma to spifflicate (means killing, which seems to be a crude word contextually and I personally do not want to use the word for the simple reason that Rāvaṇa is liberated at the hands of Śrī Rāma) Rāvaṇa immediately. Not only sun god, but all gods and goddesses also were eagerly awaiting Rāvaṇa’s last breath. They were under constant fear that Rāvaṇa could hurt and humiliate them. Rāvaṇa had all the qualities of a supreme king. He longed for power, wealth and pleasure and never hesitated to do anything to satiate his ego. That is why sun god told Śrī Rāma to finish Rāvaṇa immediately. Subtly the verse says that the time has come for Rāvaṇa to get liberated and the sun god here refers to Brahman. Śrī Rāma’s inner conscience told Him that Rāvaṇa’s is over and that He has to ensure liberation of Rāvaṇa at the appointed time. This also goes to prove that Brahman always ensures the perfect balance between good and bad in order to sustain the universe. Unless evil forces are eliminated, positive forces cannot successfully discharge their duties. Positive forces contextually refers to gods and goddesses, as each one of them has a prescribed duty, such as Agni who is in charge of fire, Varuṇa in charge of water, Vāyu in charge of air, etc. It is said that Viṣṇu incarnates when adharma prevails over dharma. Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (IV. 7 – 9) “Arjuna! Whenever virtues (dharma) decline and immorality (adharma) looms, I embody as an avatar.  To sustain the pious, to eliminate the sinners and to protect dharma I incarnate in every yug.  Arjuna! My avatar and actions are divine.  The one who understands this principle is not born again and reaches me when he dies.”

It is important to note the usage of word “avadan” in this verse, which means not expressed through words. When Rāma looked at the sun, which we are arguing as a minuscule form of Self-effulgent Brahman, Brahman expressed His ascent to spifflicate Rāvaṇa. If we read the above verses of Bhagavad Gītā read along with various Upaniṣad-s, we can easily infer that what is referred in Āditya Hṛdayam is not the planet sun, but a tiny portion of Self-effulgent Brahman. There is no need for Rāma to look at the sun to get his blessings to destroy Rāvaṇa. Thus Āditya Hṛdayam is a hymn in praise of Self-effulgent Brahman, as described in various Upaniṣad-s, probably the only hymn that praises Brahman as Light, though almost all Upaniṣad-s make references to this aspect.

CONCLUSION:

Summary of verses 32 and 33

These two verses are in the form of praise of sun god and Āditya Hṛdayam ends with a prayer. These two verses are not found in the original text. These two verses explicitly, not subtly, refer to Brahman.

“I worship sun god, who is handsome, like nectar to the universe (indicating immortality) , essence of Upaniṣad-s (all Upaniṣad-s reveal Brahman in different ways), endower of auspiciousness, the Supreme Knowledge (Taittirīya Upaniṣad II.i says, सत्यं ज्ञानं अनन्तं ब्रह्म। satyaṁ jñānaṁ anantaṁ brahma , which means that Truth, Knowledge and Infinity is Brahman), head of all gods and goddesses (contextually does not refer to Indra*, who is the chief of all gods and goddesses), who sustains the universe, chief of *Indra, Āditya-shuman beings, Guru of gods and goddesses (deva Guru, mentioned in the text as sura-guru, where sura means gods, sages and saints, cūḍāmaṇi (contextually refers to the best or most excellent) of the universe, who holds trimūrti-s in His heart (trimūrti refers to Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva; the text refers to them individually), illuminating eternally and infinitely (only Brahman is Self illuminating; Kaṭha Upaniṣad (II.ii.15) explains this further. “In the presence of Brahman, the sun does not shine, nor do the moon and stars, nor does lightning, let alone this fire.  When Brahman shines, everything follows.  By Its light, all these are lighted” and Chāndogya Upaniṣad (VIII.iii.4) says, param joytiḥ upasampadyate which means attaining the highest light.  The Upaniṣad says “Then, this person, who is the embodiment of happiness, emerging from the body and attaining the highest light, assumes his real nature.  This is the Self.”).

Prayer:

O! Sun god! O! Bhānu (Splendorous), O! Mārtāṇḍa (which means that Brahman without any origin and devoid of any parentage; first of all creations and from whom everything else originates), having powerful rays that is capable of energising the universe, please give me long and healthy life, wealth, good progeny (to continue his lineage).”

With this, Āditya Hrudayam is concluded.

More articles:

Aditya Hrudayam – Introduction

Aditya Hridayam - Part 10