Gita Series – 138: Chapter - XIV. Verse 4 – 8

Of all embodied beings, prakṛti is the mother who conceives and I am the seed giving father. Sattva, rajas and tamas born of prakṛti, tie down the imperishable soul to the body. Of the three guṇa-s, sattva is pure, illuminating and immaculate and binds a soul with joy and wisdom. Rajas is of passion, avariciousness and attachment and binds a soul through actions and their fruits. Tamas is of ignorance and binds a soul through delusion, laziness and slumber.”

Prakṛti has two aspects, combined or samaṣṭi, the aggregate aspect of māyā and individual or vyaṣṭi, the partial aspect of māyā on an individual soul. When an individual soul interacts with primordial prakṛti, when all the three guṇa-s remain in equal proportion, the equilibrium gets disturbed and creation commences. The equilibrium gets disturbed, only when a soul conjugates with prakṛti, and the creation comes about in prakṛti, the womb of all creations. Every creation is born only out of prakṛti which is fathered by puruṣa. Hence, Kṛṣṇa says that He is the father and Prakṛti is the mother of the universe. Soon after a form is created, it begins the process of evolution, undergoing modifications. During the process of evolution, one of the three guṇa-s alone become prominent and accordingly, the character of a person is determined. Sattva guṇa means the quality of purity and knowledge. The presence of other two guṇa-s is not very prominent in sattva guṇa as this guṇa is endowed with the highest purity. Rajo guṇa is the activity of passion. Tamo guṇa is inertia or ignorance. These two guṇa-s have higher trace of other guṇa-s. Guṇa-s are the inherent qualities of Prakṛti. Ego and intellect originate from guṇa-s that are present in all the evolutes of prakṛti, but distributed in unequal proportions in each individual. The predominant guṇa that prevails in an individual is reflected through his thoughts and actions. Guṇa of a person is susceptible to changes, based on his thought process.

Kṛṣṇa says that guṇa-s are the cause to bind a soul, because creation happens due to the disturbance in the equilibrium of the three guṇa-s that happens in prakṛti, due to the conjugation with a soul.