Jñānaṁ jāgrat ज्ञानं जाग्रत् (sūtra I.8)

Svapno vikalpāḥ स्वप्नो विकल्पाः (sūtra I.9)

Aviveko māyāsauṣuptam अविवेको मायासौषुप्तम् (sūtra I.10)

The three aphorisms are considered together, as they are the successive states of consciousness. No one can remain perpetually in any one of these states.  Hence these three aphorisms are taken together for being commented by the authors.  Jāgrat, svapna and aviveka refer to the three states of consciousness viz. active state, dream state and deep sleep. The dreamless state of suṣupti, ismāyā.

In active state materialistic knowledge is gained through sensory organs. In the dream state, the mind becomes independent of any influence from the materialistic world. This is called vikalpāḥ, the difference in perception due to different thought processes. Therefore, knowledge obtained during dream state is uninfluenced by sensory objects. The deep sleep state is described in sūtra I.10 as the state of aviveka. It is the state of non-discernment or absence of discrimination, which happens due to the presence of āṇavamala that finally generates the void of Māyā. Therefore, different states of consciousness have been described depending upon the quality of awareness.  The lowest awareness is associating with materialistic world and highest awareness is the state of absence of discrimination. 

Four types of mixed awareness lead to four types of experience and they are abuddha, buddha,prabuddha and suprabuddha. Abuddha means stupid (lit. unawakened).  He obviously cannot attain the higher level of knowledge known as spiritual knowledge.  Therefore, he cannot have spiritual experience. The next is buddha (lit. awakened), the intelligent aspirants. They are capable to refining their consciousness level and can have higher level of Divine experience. The third state isprabuddha, where he is no more an aspirant. He now transforms into a yogī. The fourth state issuprabuddha, where even that yogī does not exist. He is one with Śiva. He understands His true nature.

The states of consciousness are also described with reference to the knower of the object, who is known as pramātā. The known object is prameya. In other words, the knower of prameya is thepramātā. The experience of the pramātā with relation to prameya gives rise to different stages in the aspirant’s consciousness. The object, prameya, is realized by pramātā by acquiring knowledge, known as pramāṇa..  For example, let us take the case of a glacier. A mundane person looks at the glacier as the glacier itself. He is engrossed in the form of the object alone.  In the case of a yogī, he goes beyond the physical appearance of the object and looks for the source of the glacier, the water. The different combinations of consciousness are as follows. It is the combination because, when the consciousness moves from one level to the next level, the previous level also exists in the next level. These levels mean different things to a yogī.

The following chart will explain with regard to jāgrat state.

For the ordinary person, these four levels of consciousness are jāgrat-avasthā or mere wakefulness. The yogī calls these states as piṇḍastha, which means states relating to the objective side. There is a stage called jñānī. He is the one who has realized Śiva completely. He always stands connected to the purest consciousness of Śiva.  For them, all this set of mixtures related to wakefulness is known as sarvatobhadra, the prevailing of complete auspiciousness of Śiva (because there is bhadrá or auspiciousness from all sides, everywhere -sarvatas, i.e. auspicious in every way). Auspiciousness because the jñānī realizes the macrocosmic existence of Śiva. For him, Śiva alone exists everywhere, all the time.

Like the active state, dream state also has different levels. The state of dream unfolds when hisvikalpa-s are active in his exclusive world of dreams known as abāhya, his very own internal world.Svapna or dream state has also different combinations. For example, svapna-jāgrat, where the dreamer is able to see his dreams very clearly. This is the active state in dreamy condition.  It is because of the movements of prāṇa and apāna are perfectly balanced that his dream appears with clarity. This state is also known as gatāgata, which means going and coming, referring to the movements of prāṇa and apāna.

The next state is svapna-svapna, the state of dream in dreamy condition. Here, dreams are not clear as in gatāgata as this state is full of disarray. This state is known as suvikṣipta.  The next state issvapna-suṣupti, where the aspirant enjoys with ease, his world of dream as there is no disagreement and incompatibility between the objects of his dream. That is, his dreams unfold as if it happens in real life in a systematic way. There is always logic in his dream during this state. This state is calledsaṁgata, which means united. The last one in the dream state is svapna-turya.  This is the state where the aspirant clearly knows that he is dreaming. He is fully aware of his dreams.  This state is also known as susamāhita, which means well attentive.  But, a yogī unites all these four states into a single state called padastha, which means that through yoga he remains united with his own Self in all these conditions viz. gatāgata, suvikṣipta, saṁgata and susamāhita.  For a jñānī, the union of all these four states is called vyāpti. Vyāpti means pervasion.  He experiences vyāpti of his Self in all these four states of svapna.

In the case of deep sleep also there are four states. They are suṣupti- jāgrat, where there is thesaṁskāra or impression of the entire objective universe in a latent form. This is proven by the state when a sādhaka awakens from his suṣupti state, he could not recollect anything objective but mere void pertaining to his suṣupti state. This state is called udita, which means ascended. Ascension here refers to the world emerging once again from that saṁskāra or latency when he wakes up. The next state is suṣupti-svapna. In this state, all the karmic impressions appear as increased and sharper. This state is called vipula, which means increased, because one can perceive the saṁskāra-s in a sharper way. They are fostered by Śakti so that they become stronger and sharper. When they are that sharp, they can be perceived easily by the yogī, who now knows how the machinery of bondage works and can have precognition of future events before these happen. Most people don't experience this state obviously, because if they could do that, they could anticipate future facts and consequently pain would be mitigated by a vast margin. This would break the law of karma. The third one is suṣupti-suṣupti, also known as śānta. In this state, the remnants of karmic traces lose all their potency and become subdued and tranquil. As one's ego is the sum of all the saṁskāra-s or latent impressions, when this state of suṣupti-suṣupti appears, ego is divinely transformed (it becomes peaceful or tranquil because it cannot produce bondage any more as the impressions forming it are also peaceful and tranquil) before the next phase occurs. This state is known as śānta because all the traces of objective experience become quiet and almost totally inactive (not fully inactive because this would mean that no ego would appear any more from that point on and this is not possible except in the case of a videhamukta who merges into Brahman completely, not even retaining the slightest trace of ego or personality). The fourth state is suṣupti-turya, which is known as suprasannaor very serene or peaceful. This is the state where the Yogī enters into the I-consciousness of Śiva,who appears as Cidākāśa or the Ether of Consciousness in sahasrāra.

But, in the state of turya there are only three states. Turya-jāgrat is the state where the normal human mind ceases to be active and is taken over by super mind or unmanā, known as manonmanaor supramental (above the usual state of mind).  This is the state where supramental power ofParamaśiva prevails, leading to the state of bliss. Turya-svapna is the next state where the Yogītranscends all the limitations. This state is known as ananta, which means boundless, infinite, because prāṇa and apāna, having reached Brahmarandhra, finally abandon the sphere of the body and merges into the Great Ether. Turya-suṣupti is the state where the Yogī sees Śakti everywhere. This state is known as sarvārtha, referring to the condition where the Yogī can be at all times in theŚiva's state without any necessity of closing his eyes, to be sitting in lotus posture and so on.Sarvārtha or “all matters, all the things” indicates that the Yogī can stay fully enlightened under all the circumstances. There is no mixture in the form of turya-turya.

In all the states, there is difference in the states of consciousness between an sādhaka and a Yogīand a Jñānī. A sādhaka is the one who has just entered the spiritual path, leaving aside his religious pursuits. He has only the will to realize the Self. He has just commenced his spiritual journey.  A Yogīis the one, who stands united with the Self after an intense spiritual practice.  But a Jñānī is the one, who has realized the Self through knowledge alone (no practices). Both know that they are Śiva. The merging has happened, but they continue to live till all their karmic impressions are experienced.

Turya is the fourth state of consciousness, where the Yogī identifies himself with the consciousness of Śiva. The state of turya is to be experienced to have complete understanding. Kṛṣṇa explains this state in Bhagavad Gītā (VIII. 20 and 21) thus: “Beyond this Unmanifest, there is yet another unmanifest Existence, the Supreme Divine Person, who does not perish even though all beings perish. The same Unmanifest which has been spoken of as the Indestructible is also called the supreme goal; that again is My supreme abode, attaining which, they return not to this mortal world.” For a sādhaka, it is the fourth stage of consciousness. For a yogī is the state of rūpātīta (rūpa + atīta) which means the state of transcending the common form of both subject and object. But a Jñānīdescribes turya as the state of pracaya or collectivity, because he sees everything as full of his own Self. This is the state of attaining the highest degree of divine Bliss. Pracaya means aggregative.

Turyātīta is the state of total divine ecstasy. There are no stages or states involved here. It is the state of Yogī and of a Jñānī, the complete liberation. Such a person does not practice meditation, nor does he get involved in any other spiritual practices. He knows that he is Śiva and no other practice is required as it the ultimate state. The Jñānī calls this state mahā- pracaya or great collectivity because he experiences not only the highest degree of divine Bliss but also His Absolute Freedom orSvātantrya. This is the state where everything disappears as different or separate from Śiva, one's own Self.