Veda-jananī वेद-जननी (338)
Creator of Veda-s. Literally this can be explained as ‘She gave birth to Veda-s’. Veda-s originated from the Brahman in the form of sound. This sound was realized by the ancient sages and taught to their disciples orally. Only in the recent past, Veda-s are made available in textual forms. More than the text, the orthoepy is important in Veda-s and any wrong recitals or wrong notes (svara) leads to undesired results. This was the reason for teaching Veda-s orally. Veda-s originate from Śabda Brahman (śabda means sound).
Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (I.i.5) gives a different interpretation. “There are two categories of knowledge, secular or aparā and spiritual or parā. Aparā comprises of four Veda-s, phonetics, rituals, grammar, etymology, metre and astronomy. But parā is that by which one knows the Brahman, which is ever the same and never decays.”
But, Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (II.iv.10) puts this in a different perspective. “Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sāma Veda, Atharva Veda, history, mythology, arts, Upaniṣads, pithy verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations are like the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this Supreme Self.”
Puruṣa-sūktam gives yet another interpretation. It says that ‘the Veda-s originated from sarvahuta yajñā that was conducted by gods and great sages, invoking Puruṣa as the lord of this fire ritual. This Puruṣa is called the Brahman, from whom the Veda-s originated.
Even though the interpretations are different, all of them concur that the Veda-s or its subtle form sound, originated from the Supreme.
Viṣṇu-māyā विष्णु-माया (339)
She is the māyā of Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu is all-pervading maintainer of the universe. Brahman’s sustaining act is known as Viṣṇu. Nārāyaṇa Sūktam says ‘Viṣṇu exists both internally and externally (of our physical body)’. Śaktī is in the form of māyā or illusion that forms a sort of veil around the Brahman. Unless the veil is removed, one cannot realize the Brahman and this is the reason why so much importance is attached to Śaktī worship. Śiva has given His independent autonomy (svātantraya śaktī) to Śaktī to administer the universe.
Kṛṣṇa says (Bhagavad Gīta VII.14) “It is difficult to transcend my māyā consisting of three qualities (three guṇa-s). Only those who surrender unto me can become free from the clutches of māyā”. This verse of Gita should be considered as very significant. In a single verse Kṛṣṇa explains the concept of māyā and way to overcome it. Māyā is the combination of three guṇa-s viz. satvic, rajas and tamas. Manipulating these gunas cause manifestation. If one is able to transcend these three guṇa-s, the first step of removing the veil of māyā is achieved. The next step is to surrender unto Him. Kṛṣṇa says “māmeva ye prapadyante māyāmetāṁ tarantidya मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्तिद्य.” This means ‘those who surrender unto me certainly overcome this illusion’.
Vilāsinī विलासिनी (340)
Vilāsa means playful. One interpretation is that She is interested in fun, associated with lusty acts with Śiva. Possibly this could mean that such acts are not considered as sins, as projected. If such acts do not exist, where is the question of procreation? If no procreation is happening, one of the God’s acts, the creation itself will be in jeopardy. Even the ancient scriptures do not advocate abstaining from such acts. But, at the same time they do prescribe certain rigorous rules and regulations that are to be strictly adhered to.
Vilāsa also means the power of projection which is called vikṣepa śakti (power of projection, through which the projection of the world is possible). This is the true act of māyā, veiling the Ultimate Truth and projecting It is as something else, thereby causing illusion. This interpretation seems to be appropriate as this nāma follows the earlier nāma Viṣṇu-māyā’. When She is in the form Viṣṇu’s māyā, (Viṣṇu is all-pervading) naturally She causes illusion.