तस्माद्यज्ञात् सर्वहुतः संभृतं पृषदाज्यम्।
पशून्ताश्चक्रे वायव्यानारण्यान् ग्राम्याश्च ये॥
tasmāt yajñāt sarvahutaḥ saṁbhṛtaṁ pṛṣadājyam |
paśūntāścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān grāmyāśca ye || (I.9)
The yajña described in the previous verse is known as sarvahuta yajña. Out of this yajña, came out curd and ghee; then prajāpati created domesticated animals (for offering into yajña), birds and wild animals.
The process of creation is being explained further. When sarvahut yajña was performed, first ghee mixed with curd came out. This mixture is called upalakṣaṇa, a term metaphorically or elliptically or in a generic sense and serves as food for all beings, the act of sustenance. Then Prajāpati went ahead with creation step by step (evolution). First Prajāpati created domesticated animals for offering into yajña and later birds and wild animals. Domesticated animals though offered into yajña-s, they were revived due to the power of tapas of the sages and saints and gods.
तस्माद्यज्ञ सर्वहुतः ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे।
चन्दासि जज्ञिरे तसमात् यजुस्तस्मादजायत॥
tasmādyajña sarvahutaḥ ṛcaḥ sāmāni jajñire |
candāsi jajñire tasamāt yajustasmādajāayata || (I.10)
This is in continuation of the previous verse. From the sarvahut yajña, Rig Veda and Sāma mantras originated. From these Veda mantras Vedic meters (chandas) originated. From this, Yajur Veda originated.
Vedas are said to be the direct revelations of Brahman to sages and saints. This verse endorses this theory. In this yajña, Puruṣa Himself was offered as one of the oblations and creation begins from the pit of this yajña. The three Vedas referred in this verse, were revealed to the sages and saints who performed the yajña, Vedic revelations were in the form of illumination to the sages and saints. Different sages and saints heard different Vedic hymns and these Vedic verses were named after those sages as their Riṣi-s. Vedas are also known as Śruti-s, because it was revealed to them in their minds and not verbally taught. Śruti means hearing and listening. Those enlightened Riṣi-s gave material forms to the revelations and taught to the world.
तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त ये के चोभयादतः।
गावोह जज्ञिरे तस्मात्तस्माज्जाता अजावयः॥
tasmādaśvā ajāyanta ye ke cobhayādataḥ |
gāvoha jajñire tasmāttasmājjātā ajāvayaḥ || (I.11)
From this yajña horses and animals with two rows of teeth (upper and lower jaws) like cattle, cows, goats and sheep originated.
Process of creation is being explained further. Probably this verse should have come next to verse 9, in order to maintain the sequence of creation.
यत् पुरुषं व्यदधुः कतिधा व्यकलपयन्।
मुखं किमस्य कौ बाहू का ऊरू पादा उच्येते॥
yat puruṣaṁ vyadadhuḥ katidhā vyakalapayan |
mukhaṁ kimasya kau bāhū kā ūrū pādā ucyete || (I.12)
This verse asks questions on creation. When gods, sages and saints offered Puruṣa in the sarvahut yajña, what was His form? What was His face, hands, thighs and feet? Or when they created Puruṣa out of this yajña, what was His face, hands, thighs and feet?
The next verse answers this.
ब्राह्मणोस्य मुखमासीद्वाहू राजयन्यः कृतः।
ऊरू तदस्य यद्वैश्यः पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत ॥
brāhmaṇosya mukhamāsīdvāhū rājayanyaḥ kṛtaḥ |
ūrū tadasya yadvaiśyaḥ padbhyāṁ śūdro ajāyata || (I.13)
Gross meaning: His face became the caste of brāhmana, His hands became the caste of kṣatriya, His thighs became the caste of vaiśya and His feet became the caste of śūdra.
But Kṛṣṇa has conveyed the true meaning of caste system. He says in Bhagavad Gītā (XVIII. 40 – 44), ““There is no being on earth, or in the heaven or among the gods, or elsewhere without the three guṇa-s, originated from Prakṛti. Men are classified under four broad categories based upon their inherent qualities, based on the three guṇa-s. Subjugation of mind and senses, enduring hardships for the discharge of one’s prescribed obligations, both internal and external purity, forgiveness, honesty, behaviour, belief in Vedas and Sacred Scriptures, faith in God and life after death – all these constitute the inherent duties of brāhmaṇa-s. Gallantry, fearlessness, firmness, cleverness, solemnity in battles, bestowing gifts and leadership qualities are the inherent duties of kṣatriya-s. Agriculture, breeding of cattle and business are the qualities of vaiśya-s. Offering their services to other three classes is the inherent duty of śūdra-s.”
The entire humanity is being classified under four categories, depending upon the inherent qualities present in them. This classification is not based on one’s birth or lineage, but purely on their qualities. Due to one’s efforts, one can move from one guṇa to another guṇa. Any one of these classifications cannot exist on its own and has to depend upon the other three for a peaceful and safe co-existence.
चन्द्रमा मनसो जातश्चक्षोः सूर्ये अजायत।
candramā manaso jātaścakṣoḥ sūrye ajāyata |
mukhādindraścāgniśca prāṇādvāyurajāyata || (I.14)
Previous verse spoke of creation of human beings. This verse explains further.
His mind became the moon, from His eyes came out the sun, His mouth (mukha means face; it also means mouth) produced Indra and Agni and His breath produced air.
नाभ्या आसिदन्तरिक्षं शीर्ष्णो द्यौः समवर्तत।
पद्भ्यां भूमिर्दिशः श्रोत्रात् तथा लोका अकल्पयन्॥
nābhyā āsidantarikṣaṁ śīrṣṇo dyauḥ samavartata |
padbhyāṁ bhūmirdiśaḥ śrotrāt tathā lokā akalpayan || (I.15)
From His navel came forth, ākāśā (sky); from His feet earth came out; from His ears cardinal directions; His several limbs created various worlds.