614. Lokatrayāśrayaḥ लोकत्रयाश्रयः
The three worlds rest on Him. A human has three states of consciousness – active, dream and deep sleep states. In all these states of consciousness, the body rests on Him.
These three states of consciousness are also referred in the famous Gayatri mantra. Gayatri mantra proper is preceded by ॐ and then by three vyāhṛti-s. Vyāhṛti-s represent the three types of worlds. (The names of the seven worlds are bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ, satyaṁ. The first three are called the great vyāhṛiti-s and recited after ॐ by many, before commencing their daily prayers and are personified as the daughters of Savitṛi and Pṛiśni.) Then follow the Gāyatrī mantra proper. ॐ or praṇava is the first manifestation of Śabda Brahman. Before ॐ could manifest into A, U and M, it was in the form of nāda-bindu (un-manifested form of sound), the creative power of the universe. Next to praṇava are three vyāhṛti-s bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ and svaḥ. These vyāhṛti-s represent further manifestation of OM and this manifestation is called origin of speech and said to represent the three worlds of this universe. These three worlds originated from the three letters A, U, M of OM or अ, उ म of ॐ. From these vyāhṛti-s , was derived the Gāyatrī mantra. Gāyatrī mantra is the origin of three Veda-s (Rig, yajur and Sama Veda-s). Three loka-s or worlds mean the three stages of consciousness. Bhūr means the lower level of consciousness and lower planes. Bhuvar means the ordinary or normal level of consciousness that is associated with our day to day activities. Svar means higher level of consciousness. Thus, the three vyāhṛti-s in fact mean the modifications in the level of consciousness. Three loka-s are also commonly enumerated, viz. heaven, earth, and the atmosphere or lower regions. Bhūr-loka, the earth; Bhuvar-loka the space between the earth and sun inhabited by sages and saints; Svar-loka, Indra's Heaven above the sun or between it and the polar star.
615. Svakṣaḥ स्वक्षः
He has perfect organs and this nāma particularly refers His eyes. His eyes are beautiful as they reflect His compassion of love for the beings.
His eyes are compared to the lotus petals with sharp curved corners.
616. Svaṅgaḥ स्वङ्गः
Svaṅga means properly shaped handsome body. His incomparable handsomeness is the reflection of His compassion and love towards His creations. His body attracts His devotees towards Him.
617. Śatānandaḥ शतानन्दः
Śatānanda means delighting many. It is also one of the names of Viṣṇu. This means that He is always in the state of Bliss and out of this Bliss, all other beings live.
Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (IV.iii.32) explains this. It says, “This is its supreme attainment, this is its supreme glory, this is its highest world, this is its Supreme Bliss. On a particle of this very Bliss, other beings live.”
Chāndogya Upaniṣad (VII.23) beautifully explains this further. “That which is Infinite is the source of happiness. There is no happiness in the finite.” This Infinite is Bliss, also known as Brahman.
This nāma reconfirms that Viṣṇu is Supreme.
618. Nandiḥ नन्दिः
Nandi means the happy one. (Nanda means delight, happiness, etc.) This subtly conveys the state of Bliss, as described in the Upaniṣad-s referred in the previous nāma.
Various nāma-s of this Sahasranāma repeatedly talk about Bliss. All the Upaniṣad-s also underline the importance of Bliss. Bliss is the mental state of a spiritual aspirant, where his mind is totally pervaded by the thoughts of Viṣṇu. He is no more called as an aspirant. He elevates himself into a Yogī. Yoga means union and in the state of Yogī, his individual consciousness always remains united with universal consciousness. A Yogī attains perfection only when he sees the world through the eyes of God. Only in this state of mind, Bliss of the Lord can be realized.
619. Jyotirgaṇeśvaraḥ ज्योतिर्गणेश्वरः
Jyotirgaṇa refers to all the heavenly bodies. Jyotis means sun, fire and other luminaries. Gaṇa means many. (Gaṇa also refers to demigods and Gaṇeśvara, who is their chief. Lord Gaṇeśa is so called because he is considered as the chief of demigods and goddesses.) These luminaries get their illumination only from Brahman, as He alone is Self-illuminating. Īśvara means Chief.
Kaṭha (कठ) Upaniṣad says (II.ii.15) “In the presence of Brahman the sun does not shine, nor the moon and stars, nor does the lightning, let alone this fire. When Brahman shines, everything else follows. By Its light all these are lighted”. This nāma also reaffirms Him as the Brahman.
The soul which is also known as jīva when placed in an empirical self, the divine transcendental Light ever shines within its glory, but unfortunately hidden from our perception because of our thought constructs. This Self-illuminating light is known as prakāśa form of the Brahman. This is also known as the Supreme Consciousness or Supreme Light of Consciousness. When there is a harmonious synthesis of Prakāśa form of Viṣṇu and Vimarśa form of His Māyā, manifestation of the universe takes place. Vimarśa form reflects the Self-illuminating light of Prakāśa form and the one without the other becomes incapable of causing manifestation.
Kṛṣṇa also confirms this in Bhagavad Gītā (XV.12), where He says, “The light in the sun that illuminates the entire universe and that which shines in the moon and that too which shines in the fire, know that light to be Mine.”
620. Vijitātmā विजितात्मा
Vijita means the one who has conquered. This is with particular reference to one’s mind. Only through the mind, one can subjugate sensory organs. As long as sensory organs are active and associated with mind, one’s consciousness cannot be purified, i.e. the awareness cannot be focused. Unless, one’s consciousness is focused on Him, he cannot enter the state of bliss. This nāma not merely adores Him with this quality, but also cites Him as an example how to refine one’s mind in order to attain Him, as He is the ultimate destination for all.
621. Avidheyātmā अविधेयात्मा
In some texts this nāma has been explained as Vidheyātmā.
Vidheya means procured or employed. The prefix ‘A’ negates the meaning of the word vidheya, which means, cannot be procured or cannot be employed, etc. Ātma refers to the Self. Therefore, this nāma means that He cannot be conquered, except through true devotion.
He can be attained only through perpetual contemplation and not by any other means. When He pervades the mind and body of a devotee, he becomes That, which means, the devotee attains all the qualities of Nārāyaṇa and ready to become one with Him. This process is called liberation.
622. Satkīrtiḥ सत्कीर्तिः
Satkīrti means good reputation. His reputation is not because of adoration. His reputation is inherent in Him, as from Him alone everything originates.
This nāma can be explained through the words of Arjuna in Bhagavad Gītā (XI.36, 37 & 38). Arjuna addresses Kṛṣṇa thus: “Lord, well, it is the universe exults and is filled with love by chanting Your names, virtues and glory.....You are the progenitor of Brahmā (god in charge of creation and is different from Brahman). O Infinite Lord of celestials, Abode of the universe, You are that which is existent, non-existent and beyond both. You are the Primal Deity, the most ancient Person. You are the ultimate resort of this universe....”
623. Chinnasaṁśayaḥ छिन्नसंशयः
Because of the qualities described in the previous nāma, He remains beyond doubts and confusions. Doubts arise only due to attachment to the material world. Attachment produce greed, desire, etc and when they are not attained, a person slips into a state of confusion. Confusion is a state where one has multiple and contradictory thoughts. When the mind has different thought processes contradicting each other, confusion is a natural epiphenomenon. As long as confusion prevails, liberation is not possible.
Arjuna addresses Kṛṣṇa towards the end of Bhagavad Gītā (XVIII.73), “By Your Grace, my delusion has fled and wisdom has been gained by me. I stand shorn of all doubts. I will do Your bidding.”
This is further explained in Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (II,ii.8), which says, “If an aspirant can realize Brahman as the cause and Brahman as the effect of his own Self, all the peculiarities of his character disappear and all his doubts are dispelled. The fruits of his work also get destroyed.”