108. Sammitaḥ सम्मितः
Sammita means measured. He is measurable by His devotees alone. This nāma is often used as asammitaḥ, which means immeasurable, the quality of the Brahman.
109. Samaḥ समः
Sama means equal. He is without partiality. Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (IX.29), “I am impartial. There is none dear to Me or hateful to Me. However, those who seek Me with true devotion reside in Me and I also reside in them.”
Sa denotes Viṣṇu and ma refers to His Consort Lakṣmī. One of Viṣṇu’s famous forms is Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa, their combined form. This is considered as the most auspicious form for worship.
110. Amoghaḥ अमोघः
Repetitive nāma at 154.
Amogha means unerring or productive. He does not err, as He is the upholder of virtues. The one, who follows moral excellence in life, never fails. The devotees who worship Him follow only virtuous path and therefore, they do not err from the high principles of life.
This nāma also means, that worshipping Him never goes unnoticed. He rewards His devotees. How does He reward? According to Chāndogya Upniṣad (VIII.vii.1), He causes the desire to know the Truth (satyakāmaḥ), He causes the commitment to Truth (satyasaṅkalpaḥ). He makes His true devotees to realise Him and offer them liberation.
111. Puṇḍarikākṣaḥ पुण्डरिकाक्षः
Puṇḍarikākṣa means lotus eyed. Viṣṇu’s eyes are grandeur in nature. His eyes look like petals of a lotus flower.
This nāma also conveys that He is realised in the centre of the heart chakra. This is the seat of the soul. Kaṭha Upaniṣad (II.i.12) says, “Of the size of the thumb, Brahman resides in the centre of the body.”
112. Vṛṣakarmā वृषकर्मा
Vṛṣa means virtues personified. Virtues are prescribed by dharma śāstra-s. They are do-s and don’t-s for upholding moral excellence. Viṣṇu not only upholds dharma, He Himself acts according to dharma. He preaches what He practices.
113. Vṛṣākṛtiḥ वृषाकृतिः
Vṛṣa is discussed in the previous nāma. Ākṛti means form. This nāma says that His various incarnations are only for the purpose of upholding dharma. It can be observed that all His incarnations are meant to destroy demons. Demons are nothing but embodiments of evils.
Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (IV.8), “Whenever virtues (dharma) decline and immorality (adharma) looms, I embody as an avatar.”
114. Rudraḥ रुद्रः
Rudra means the One, who removes pains that cause crying. He is the remover of pains. Rudra is one of the forms of the Brahman, who is intolerant to inferior human qualities such as anger and wrath. Rudra is highly praised in Vedas. He is invoked (Taittirya Samhitā - IV.5.1 to IV.5.11, popularly known as Śrī Rudraṁ) to avert catastrophes.
Brahman is projected into three types of Gods – Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra. Brahmā is the later development, who is known as Brahmaṇaspati in Vedas. Factually, Brahmaṇaspati is the Creator of the universe. “For the creative aspect of Brahmaṇaspati, Rudra supplies force. Viṣṇu supplies the necessary static elements and ordered the movements of worlds. The supreme step of Viṣṇu, His highest seat, is the triple world of bliss and light, the paramam padam which the wise ones see extended in heaven like a shining eye of vision. It is the highest seat of Viṣṇu that is the goal of Vedic journey. Here again the Vedic Viṣṇu is the natural precursor and sufficient origin of the PurāṇicNārāyaṇa, preserver and Lord of Love.” (Source – Aurobindo’s writings on the nature of Rudra-Śiva and His relation to Viṣṇu and Brahmā)
115. Bahuśirāḥ बहुशिराः
The one, with many heads. Bahu means many and śirā means head. The omnipresence of the Brahman is described through these characterizations.
Nārāyaṇa Sūktam opens by saying, “sahasraśīrṣaṁ devaṁ”, meaning ‘the One with thousands of heads’. Having said that, Nārāyaṇa sūktam continues to say, “nārāyaṇaṁ para brahma” which means that Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme Brahman.
116. Babhruḥ बभ्रुः
Babhru means a king. He is the ruler of the universe.
117. Viśvayoniḥ विश्वयोनिः
Repetitive nāma at 149.
Yoni generally means a womb. In this context, yoni refers to divine procreative energy. Viśva means universal. Divine procreative energy refers to Prakṛti, the Mother Nature.
Brahma Sūtra (I.iv.27) explains this by saying, “yoniśca hi gīyate”. It says that Brahman is the source of creation. Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (III.i.2) explains this by saying “brahmayonim”.
When individual soul conjoins with Prakṛti, an individual being is born. This is individual creation. The individual creation happens only due to the Divine procreative energy. Without Prakṛti, manifestation of the Brahman is not possible.