80. Anuttamaḥ अनुत्तमः
He is matchlessly the best; the unsurpassed. Obviously, Brahman alone can remain unsurpassed. Mahānārāyaṇa Upaniṣad (XIII.13) says, “yasmātparaṁ nāparamasti kiñcit यस्मात्परं नापरमस्ति किञ्चित् ” This means that nothing is higher than Him. The Upaniṣad continues to say that there is nothing minuter and nothing greater than Him.
Arjuna adores Kṛṣṇa (Bhagavad Gita XI.43) by saying, “You are the Lord of incomparable might, in all the three worlds, and there is none equal to you. How then, any better?”
81. Durādharṣaḥ दुराधर्षः
Durādharṣa means invincible. There is a subtle conveyance in this nāma.
This nāma says that He cannot be conquered. This nāma does not speak about His valour. This is particularly so because of the previous nāma. Conquering here means, the conquering His heart. He heart cannot be conquered by those who are not devout to Him. True devotion alone can conquer His heart and for others He remains invincible. When devotion turns into love, the devotee moves very close to Him.
Kṛṣṇa Himself explains this in Bhagavad Gita (II.59), “Sense objects turn away from him, who does not enjoy them with his senses; but the taste for them persists. This relish also disappears in the case of a man with stable mind, when he sees the Supreme.”
82. Kṛtajñaḥ कृतज्ञः
Kṛtajña means the one who knows what is right and conducts himself in the rightful manner. Viṣṇu is always known for His righteousness. He is said to be the Lord of righteousness. He sets an example to others by following righteousness. Righteousness is nothing but religious percepts, exclusively for the purpose of Realisation.
Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gita (IV.7)
yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānirbhavati bhārata |
abhyutthānmadharmasya tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmyaham ||
यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत।
अभ्युत्थान्मधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम्॥
“Wherever virtues decline and immorality looms, I embody as an avatar.”
The uttarabhāgaḥ of this Sahasranāma (verse 17) says,
ācāra-prabhavo dharmo dharmasya prabhuracyutaḥ
आचार-प्रभवो धर्मो धर्मस्य प्रभुरच्युतः
This means righteousness is born out of dharma and Viṣṇu is the Lord of dharma.
Nāma 532 is also Kṛtajñaḥ.
83. Kṛtiḥ कृतिः
Kṛti means the Creator. With reference to the previous nāma, this nāma should be interpreted as the One who creates the rules of dharma-s. Dharma is the customary observance of certain conducts prescribed by śāstra-s. Śāstra-s are religious treatises. There are two types of śāstra-s. The first one is prescribed based on the teachings of Veda-s. The second one is of recent origin. The first one is to be meticulously followed. This nāma says that Viṣṇu is the creator of these śāstra-s. After all, Vedas are His breath and He created these śāstra-s from Vedic teachings.
But, what are the benefits of following these śāstra-s? They form the foundation for one’s spiritual journey. When śāstra-s say do this and don’t do this, they purify the mind. Mind is the arena where the ultimate realisation of the Brahman takes place.
84. Ātmavān आत्मवान्
He is established in Himself and every other being is supported by Him. The Brahman has no origin and everything else, both movables and immovables, originate from Him.
Chāndogya Upniṣad (VII.xxiv.1), “It rests on its own power – no, not even on that power (this means the Brahman does not depend on anything, not even His own power).” This is the basic principle of non-dualism or dvaita philosophy. Whatever that exist is only the Brahman. The duality arises only if two things are present.
85. Sureśaḥ सुरेशः
Sureśa means the Lord of all gods. Every aspect of creation is represented by a god or goddess. For example, Varuṇa is the god who presides over water; Agni presides over fire, etc. Viṣṇu is the Chief of all such gods and goddesses.