ब्रह्मशानाच्युतेशाय सूर्यादित्यवर्चसे।
भास्वते सर्वभक्षाय रौद्राय वपुषे नमः॥ १९

तमोघ्नाय हिमघ्नाय शत्रुघ्नायमितात्मने।
कृतघ्नघ्नाय देवाय ज्योतिषां पातये नमः॥ २०

तप्तचामीकराभाय वह्नये विश्वकर्मणे।
नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे॥ २१

brahmaśānācyuteśāya sūryādityavarcase |
bhāsvate sarvabhakṣāya raudrāya vapuṣe namaḥ || (19)

tamoghnāya himaghnāya śatrughnāyamitātmane |
kṛtaghnaghnāya devāya jyotiṣāṁ pātaye namaḥ || (20)

taptacāmīkarābhāya vahnaye viśvakarmaṇe |
namastamo'bhinighnāya rucaye lokasākṣiṇe || (21)


19) brahmaśānācyuteśāya (brahmā + īśāna + acyutāya) – abiding in Brahmā, Śiva and Viṣṇu; sūrya āditya varcase – the splendour of the sun and 12 Āditya-s (the illuminating power of fire or the sun); bhāsvate – light of the sun; sarvabhakṣāya – annihilation or devouring; raudrāya – originating from Rudra or like Rudra in terms of violence, impetuousness and anger; vapuṣe – wonderful to look at; namaḥ - salutations to you.

20) tamoghnāya- destruction of darkness; himaghnāya – destruction of snow (possibility referring to melting of snow); śatrughnāya – destroying enemies; amitātmane – boundlessness; kṛtaghnaghnāya - destroying past services or benefits (kṛtaghna) or destruction (aghnat) of enemies; devāya – God, conveying Brahman; jyotiṣāṁ pātaye- Lord of Light; namaḥ - salutation to you.

21) tapta cāmīkarābhāya –  appearing like a molten gold mountain; vahnaye – fire god; viśvakarmaṇe – divine architect; namaḥ - salutation to you; tamo abhinighnāya – destroyer of gloom and darkness; rucaye – beautifully lustrous; lokasākṣiṇe – witness to the universe.

Summary of verses 19, 20 and 21:

These verses further goes to prove that what is referred by Sage Agastya is not planet sun, but Brahman. Verse 19 refers to three gods who are in-charge of three primary acts of Brahman – creation, sustenance and dissolution. These three acts are presided over by Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva respectively. This verse adores Brahman as a single entity comprising of all these three gods. Every act of the universe is controlled by a particular energy and each of these energies is presided over by a god or goddess. There are major and minor energy sources. Major energy sources are said to be creation, sustenance and destruction and these energy sources are considered as three primary acts of Brahman. Annihilation and recreation is beyond human comprehension and annihilation is discussed separately in this verse. Brahman is saluted in this verse for these three primary qualities. The question that logically arises at this point is whether Brahman here refers to Saguṇa Brahman or Nirguṇa Brahman. The reference made here is only to Saguṇa Brahman, who is with attributes. After having worshiped Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva, the verse proceeds to salute the planet sun, which nourishes the universe though light and heat energy. Twelve Āditya-s referred in this verse refer to twelve solar months making one year. There are twelve zodiacal signs in astrology. Sun takes twelve calendar months to travel through all these zodiacal signs making one calendar year and each month is presided over by a god and these gods are referred as twelve Āditya-s. Sometimes, the twelve Āditya-s are called as twelve sons of Aditi, daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Kaśyapa. Interestingly, the verse differentiates between destruction and annihilation, by making a reference to fierce Rudra. Rudra contextually can be explained in different ways. Rudra also means certain gods, who control different aspects of creation and sustenance such as Aśvins, Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, etc and each of them preside over different energy centres. Rudra also means driving away negative and evil energies. {When Śrī Rudram and Camakam (also known as vasordhāra meaning follow of felicities), are played daily at homes, negative energies if any, will go away}. Finally, the verse says that Grandeur of the miniscule form of Brahman (planet sun) is wonderful to look at. According to Trika Philosophy, Śiva is described as Prakāśa (visible, shining, bright, manifest). Self illuminating nature of Brahman is also discussed in all the Upaniṣad-s.

In verse 20, Sage Agastya reminds Śrī Rāma about the benefits of worshipping Him as Brahman. Through Āditya Hṛdayam, Agastya conveys the benefits of contemplating Brahman, in His miniscule form, the sun. He says that Brahman is be contemplated in the form of Light. Why? When we meditate intently, we will be able to see light in our ājñācakra. When this light appears in meditation, it will remove our spiritual ignorance, also known as māyā. When māyā is removed, one begins the final lap of his/her spiritual journey. This final journey goes through Bliss and ends at liberation. Here dawn of spiritual wisdom or knowledge is compared to Lord of Light and spiritual ignorance is compared to snow. When sun shines bright, snow melts away. Māyā discussed here is considered as an enemy to Self-realization. The underlying concept of this verse is that unless the darkness of māyā is removed, Self-illuminating Brahman cannot be realized. Brahman is saluted for His compassion in removing māyā for those who seek Him, within. As far as Śrī Rāma is concerned, all the enemies in the battle field who stood before Him were His Power known as māyā. A person like Rāvaṇa, who was an embodiment of all evil deeds, was liberated in the hands of Śrī Rāma.  Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā that māyā is His own yogic power.

Verse 21 says that the nature of Brahman’s Light is in the form gold. Unable to draw an appropriate comparison to the radiance of Brahman, the verse attempts to explain the radiance of Brahman to that of a golden mountain melting. Agastya is a Self-realized Sage and when a person of his stature was not able to explain His Grandeur, there is no need to talk about those who are bound by avidyā (spiritual ignorance), which are compared to gloom and darkness. Further, the verse also makes a reference to fire god and by saying so, the verse totally obliterates the difference between the sun and fire. It is said that the sun at the time of setting, hands over the life sustaining force to fire (Agni) till the dawn next day. There is also a reference to Viśvakarma, the divine architect, which refers to the intricacies of creation in a subtle way.  As per epics, Viśvakarma is the one who builds palaces of gods like Indra. The verse ends by saying that Brahman merely remains as a witness to the happenings in the world.

More articles:
Aditya Hridayam - Part 7

Aditya Hridayam - Part 9