Brahman never undergoes any type of modifications. Secondly, buddhi has no consciousness. Here buddhi also includes the mind. Except some minute differences between buddhi and mind, both are the same. (When the mind is in lower realms, it gets engrossed in various thought processes. If the mind has to reach the higher realms, it has to be guided by intellect (buddhi). Intellect has the capacity to discriminate between reality and unreality. But mind will look at everything as reality. This is due to the effect of māyā. Mind has the capacity to get addicted and intellect does not get addicted. Intellect always evaluates. Mind and intellect are known as lower mind and higher mind. Lower mind or the normal mind is influenced not only by sensory organs, but also by non-essential ego.) We believe (due to the inherent māyā), that Brahman is the doer because of innate ignorance or māyā. Why māyā is innate? It is existing in all of us and only after removing the veil cast by māyā, we can realize the Self within. Therefore, Brahman should not be considered as the doer. All the actions happen due to the influence of mind and intellect (buddhi) and in the arena of mind. Mind should always be kept free from attachments, desires, anger, frustration, etc. as the veil of māyā is present in the mind and can be removed only in the mind. (25)

Because of inherent fear (inherent because it is also a part of māyā), we consider ourselves bound by nature and time, though we are always Brahman. Only because of this fear, we mistake a rope for a snake. If this fear is shed, we can realize Brahman within. Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad says, “He who knows that Brahman, becomes Brahman himself. He is freed from sorrow and is released from ignorance.” When innate ignorance, known as māyā is shed, we realize the Brahman within. As long as māyā continues to veil the Brahman, we cannot realize It. (26)

Sense organs derive light only from the Self within. It is like a lamp illuminating the shade around it. Shade cannot illumine on its own and it has to depend upon the light within the shade. Similarly, sensory organs derive light from the Self within, which is always illuminating. All the components of antaḥkaraṇa are illumined only by the Self within. It is like sun illuminating the entire world. Though the Self is the cause of illuminating the sensory organs, the Self itself is without any action and remains as a witness. Though the sun is the cause of rain, sun is not doing anything specifically to rain. (27)

When a lamp is already burning, there is no need for another lamp to reflect its light. Similarly, when Brahman is already shining within, there is no need for any other thing to reflect Brahman. Because of Its own Light, it reflects itself. (28)

Who is Brahman? Upaniṣhads say, “neti, neti”, meaning not this, not this. Then what is Brahman? According to Upaniṣhads, Brahman can never be observed or seen. It can only be realized. This is the unique difference between everything else and Brahman. Let us take sun for example. We can see the sun that gives us light. Though Brahman is the source for sun’s light, still, we cannot see Brahman, but we can realize IT. What prevents us from realizing IT? Upādhi-s (superimpositions) are preventing us from realizing Brahman. Māyā is an upādhi. Only upādhis are negated as not this, not this. When everything is negated, what remains is the Self. (29)

Physical body is perishable. It is like bubbles in water. Bubbles exist only for some time and then burst to become one with water. Similarly, all bodies, let it be physical or subtle, they exist only for certain time. Because of avidyā (innate spiritual ignorance) we consider different shapes and forms as real and permanent. Only because of this ignorance, we develop attachment, desires, ego, arrogance, etc. and in the process never attempt to know the reality or truth. If we go past avidyā, we realize the Self. Thus, the mind plays a significant role in realizing Brahman, as avidyā is present only in an afflicted mind. (30)

Brahman is free from time and shape. Brahman is neither body, nor senses. It does not change, become old, or die. Brahman is omnipresent and Brahman alone is omnipresent. We feel that sensory organs are superimposed on the Self and in fact, It is free from all superimpositions. It is unique in every way. (31)

Self is free from all worldly things such as pleasure and pain, attachment, fear, anger, etc. It is not the mind (but can be realized only in the mind through the mind). Self is the purest and the highest, beyond which nothing else is present. It is ubiquitous. (32)

From It alone, all other life supporting energies such as prāṇa, pañcabhūta, antaḥkaraṇa, etc. originate. It is the cause of the entire universe. Effect is various shapes and forms, oceans, mountains, deserts, trees, birds, human beings, etc. Except Brahman, everything else is only effect. (33)

Though It is the cause, It is devoid of any attributes, blemishes and any other qualities that are present in living beings. It is formless and changeless. (Worshipping Brahman in various shapes and forms is only due to innate spiritual ignorance. Realization is possible only when we go past the notion that different gods and goddesses exist. Spiritual practices can also ameliorate our minds and at the same time, it could trigger our ego and desires which may end up with pride and vanity.) (34)

Brahman fills up everything, both inside and external. It is like ether, occupying every space we know. Though, It is pure and omnipresent, It remains unattached. All the shapes and forms that we see are nothing but the effects of māyā. When we shed māyā, we realize Brahman. It is like clouds that covered the sun, moving away leading to the view of the sun. The only difference is that we see the sun here and Brahman can only be realized after removal of māyā and cannot be seen. (35)

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