Now Yama begins his speech on identifying the atman. It is by this Self (Brahman or Atman) you realise the taste, smell, sound, touch and sexual pleasures. The soul is the cause for actions of our sensory organs. Within the soul there is atman who is the cause of creation, and refraining from participating in the acts of sensory organs. Without the atman soul cannot function. That is why Yama says that atman, which is the universal subject is responsible for these acts. Self is the knower everything. By which, one experiences the two stages namely, awakening and dream stage is called atman. The deep sleep stage is not discussed here as in this stage we always stand united with the Brahman. Atman can be realized in the stage of awakening only by the control of mind, as the mind is the cause for attachment to the objects through sensory organs. The impression created by the mind in our subconscious mind is the cause for dreams. You can exercise control over your mind only in the awakening stage. In the second stage of sleep with dreams you cannot control your mind as the dreams are not under your control. In the third stage of deep sleep, there is no question of your mind, as it ceases to function. Yama says that even in the stage of awake, your mind should be in the stage of deep sleep. This is because the mind in the deep sleep stage does not function and therefore causes no impressions.
The one that makes you to enjoy or suffer on account of your karmas, the one that is the foundation for your life, the one that is known as the master of present, past and future is the atman. The one who was there before the creation of the five elements of akash, air, fire, water and earth, the one who is in the cave of the heart is the atman. He is witnessing everything. In the earlier postings, we have been talking about prakasha (static energy) and vimarsha (kinetic energy) forms of the Brahman. We called prakasha as Shiva and vimarsha as Shakthi. This concept is being discussed by Yama here. Yama says the one in the form of prana (life energy), the one who manifested along with the five elements of akash etc, and the one who resides in the cave of the heart is the atman that Naciketa is seeking for. For the first time, Yama talks about Shakthi. Yama goes still further and says that shakthi is the form all the deities. A distinction is now being made by Yama between static and kinetic energy. Prakasha or the Brahman is the Supreme creator and Shakthi is one of His creations. Shakthi then infuses life in all the living beings. Prakasha and vimarsha or Shiva and Shakthi or Brahman and soul combine alone can give life. One without the other is nothing. Assuming that Brahman has not created Shakthi, then there will be nothing except the Brahman in the whole of Universe. Because of the presence of Shakthi, we are trying to know her creator. Realizing the Shakthi means realizing your soul only. You have to go beyond soul. Knowing the cause of Shakthi or the creator of Shakthi is self realization. This Shakthi is the reason for all our actions and resultant karmas.