Anuvāka 4

ऊर्क् ūrk – food; सूनृता sūnṛtā – pleasant words; पय paya – milk; रस rasa – essence (of milk, which is explained next); घृतं ghṛtaṁ - ghee (clarified butter); मधु madhu – honey; सग्धि sagdhi – eating together with family; सपीति sapīti – driking together with family; कृषि kṛṣi – agriculture; वृष्टि vṛiṣṭi – rain; जैत्रं jaitraṁ - victorious; औद्भिद्यं audbhidyaṁ - victory (probably referring to germination of seeds); रयि rayi – property, wealth (mostly used only in Vedas); राय rāya – king; पुष्टं puṣṭaṁ - abundance; पुष्टि puṣṭi – nourishment (of the body); विभु vibhu – bestowing richness; प्रभु prabhu – master, king; बहु bahu – many; भूय bhūya – increasing; पूर्णं pūrṇaṁ - complete; पूर्णतरं pūrṇataraṁ - fullness; अक्षिति akṣiti – imperishableness; कूयवा kūyavā – small grains; अन्नं annaṁ - food; अक्षुत् akṣut – satiety; व्रीही vrīhī – rice; यवा yavā – barley; माष māṣa – urad dal; तिल tila – sesame; मुद्गा mudgā – kidney beans; खल्वा khalvā – bengal gram; गोधूमा godhūmā – wheat; मसुरा masurā - lentil; प्रियङ्गव priyaṅgava – mustard; अणव aṇava – fine paddy; श्यामाका śyāmākā – cultivated grass; निवारा nivārā – wild grass.

Notes: Prayer in the fourth anuvāka:

Please give me sufficient food and drink to eat and drink along with my family and relatives; pleasant words (devoid of shout and hatred); milk and milk related products such as ghee; honey; enough rains to make my agriculture produce to grow properly; victory in all my actions; adequate wealth both in terms of movable and immovable; make me live a royal life (make me like a king); everything in abundance; richness to nourish my body well; increase in everything I have; I need completeness and fulfilment (not thinking of overabundance); imperishableness of my various agriculture produce (protection from floods and drought) and satisfaction.

Anuvāka 5

अश्मा aśmā – stone; मृत्तिका mṛttikā – earth; गिरि giri – hill; पर्वत parvata – mountain; सिकता sikatā – sand; वनस्पति vanaspati – tree; हिरण्य hiraṇya – gold; अय aya – bronze; सीसं sīsaṁ - lead; त्रपु trapu – tin; श्यामं śyāmaṁ - iron; लोहं lohaṁ - copper; अग्नि agni – fire; आप āpa – water; वीरुध vīrudha – plants; ओषधय oṣadhaya – herbs; कृष्टपच्यं kṛṣṭapacyaṁ - sprouting after ploughing the land; अकृष्टपच्यं akṛṣṭapacyaṁ - wild plants on unploughed land; ग्राम्या grāmyā – domesticated animals; आरण्य āraṇya – wild animals living in forest; यज्ञेन कल्पन्तां yajñena kalpantāṁ - let all of them become harmonious through yajña (fire ritual vasordhārā); {yajñena kalpantāṁ is the most important mantra in Chamakam and in fact, it should be added to every mantra of Chamakam; however this phrase is used only in select places. This conveys that all our prayers according to the dictums of dharma. This emphasise the concept that material life is the foundation of spiritual life. We can observe more of this phrase in the subsequent anuvāka-s.} वित्तं vittaṁ - wealth, properties; वित्ति vitti – (wealth) going to be acquired (vitti also means consciousness); भूतं bhūtaṁ - (wealth and progeny) attained; भूति bhūti – welfare personified or in the process of attaining wealth and progeny; वसु vasu – beneficent; वसति vasati – dwelling house/s; कर्म karma – actions; शक्ति śakti – energy; अर्थ artha – purpose; एम ema – course; इति iti – at this time (here and now); गति gati – attaining the goal.

Notes: Prayer in the fifth anuvāka:

Please give me stones to build properties; earth, hill and mountains with sand, trees and gold and all other metals (treasures and mines); agricultural lands with water; lands where sacred herbs grow; herbs that grow in deep forests; fire (for cooking) to sustain me and my family; domesticated animals (cows, etc) and wild animals (such as elephants); let these all become harmonious while offering these oblations (benefit of vasordhārā subtly conveyed; it also conveys that prayer is only for individual benefits but also for harmonious society). Please protect my existing wealth, give me huge wealth in future; give me good progeny; auspicious and beneficent dwelling houses; ability and energy to do auspicious acts instantaneously to reach my goal of attaining Your feet (Liberation).

Anuvāka 6

अग्नि agni – Agni; इन्द्र indra – Indra; सोम soma – Soma; इन्द्र indra – Indra; सविता savitā - Savitṛ; इन्द्र indra – Indra; सरस्वती sarasvatī – Sarasvati; इन्द्र indra – Indra; पूष pūṣa - Pūṣan; इन्द्र indra – Indra; बृहस्पति bṛhaspati - Bṛhaspati; इन्द्र indra – Indra; मित्र mitra – Mitra; इन्द्र indra – Indra; वरुण varuṇa - Varuṇa; इन्द्र indra – Indra; त्वष्ट tvaṣṭa - Tvaṣṭa; इन्द्र indra – Indra; धाता dhātā - Dhātṛ; इन्द्र indra – Indra; विष्णु viṣṇu - Viṣṇu; इन्द्र indra – Indra; अश्विन् aśvin – Aśvin-s; इन्द्र indra – Indra; मरुत् marut – Marut-s; इन्द्र indra – Indra; विश्वे viśve – all gods; इन्द्र indra – Indra; पृथिवी pṛthivī – Earth; इन्द्र indra – Indra; अन्तरिक्षं antarikṣaṁ - mid-world; इन्द्र indra – Indra; द्यौश dyauśa – Heaven; इन्द्र indra – Indra; दिशा diśā – Cardinal deities; इन्द्र indra – Indra; मूर्धा mūrdhā – worlds above; इन्द्र indra – Indra; प्रजापति prajāpati – Prajāpati; इन्द्र indra – Indra.  

Following are the 21 gods invoked in this anuvāka. Agni, Indra, Soma, Savitṛ, Sarasvati, Pūṣan, Bṛhaspati, Mitra, Varuṇa, Tvaṣṭa, Dhātṛ, Viṣṇu, Aśvin-s, Marut-s, Viśve Deva-s, Earth, Antarikṣaṁ, Heaven, Cardinal deities, worlds above, Prajāpati.

1. Indra: It can be observed that Indra is used after every name of other gods. Indra is considered as the most powerful gods in Vedas. None of the other gods possess that glory which Indra possesses. He is the lord of the divine mind. He does most of the activities in the universe. He honours and respects performers of yajñā-s and other sacrifices. He is almost associated with every other gods and hence he is invoked along with them in this anuvāka. Hence he is known as śatakratu (शतक्रतु), which means the one of hundred actions (all at the same time). He has highest intellect and is always truthful. Other gods cannot effectively function without being associated with him. If one performs hundred Aśva-medhas it elevates the sacrificer to the rank of Indra. Sage Vasiṣṭha is the only person who had Indra’s darśan. In later mythology, he is subordinated to Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. But according to Vedas, Indra is considered as supreme.

2. Agni: First word of Rig Veda is agni (अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं agnimīḻe purohitaṁ) which means I adore Agni as purohita (placed foremost, commissioned, appointed while performing yajñā-s). Agni is worshipped in Vedas through many hymns. “May Agni, the thoughtful, who is true and renowned, may he come here with other gods. Whatever good you do to your worshiper is your grace Agni.” Vedas also describe Agni as Jātavedas (having whatever is born or created as his property). More than 25% of Vedic mantras refer to Agni. He is also a purifier. He is also the dynamic life-energy, probably the will in prāṇa. He is the carrier of all the oblations to the respective gods along with two wives Svāhā (to gods) and Svatā (to ancestors). He is responsible for activating energies in the body towards realising the Self.

3. Soma: He is the deity of the delight of existence. He brings the nectar of immortality. It is a plant and the juice of this plant is extracted and offered in yajña-s. Soma is also the beverage for the gods and by drinking this, they live in eternity. In non-Vedic terminology, when kuṇḍalinī ascends towards sahasrāra, just before the brahmarandhra, there is a psychic chakra called soma chakra. Due to the heat of the kuṇḍalinī, soma rasa at this chakra melts and drips down towards the throat of the practitioner which gives good health to the practitioner.

4. Savitṛ: It is the godhead of the Supreme Truth. It is responsible for our acts and movements, therefore he is also known as the creator. He is the father of souls. Often he is identified with sun and is also known as Sūrya Sāvitirī, where Sūrya is masculine and Sāvitirī is feminine. The famous Gāyatrī mantra worships Sūrya Sāvitirī. Veda says, “Yoking first the mind, extending his thoughts, discerning the light, Savitṛ has brought Agni from the earth…… Savitṛ impels those that make the great Light. With minds well yoked at the impelling Savitṛ, may we have the strength to go to heavens……Vast is the affirmation in all things of Savitṛ, the divine Creator.”

5. Sarasvati: She is the Divine Speech and is the goddess of words. Men aspiring for transcendental knowledge invoke Sarasvati. She is portrayed as Consort of Brahmā, the creator of beings. Sarasvati blesses everyone who dedicate themselves for noble ends (example: Vedic pandits and Spiritual masters). She represents truth. She is also the goddess of inspiration.

6. Pūṣan: Originally connected with the sun, and therefore the surveyor of all things, and the conductor on journeys and on the way to the next world, often associated with Soma or the Moon as protector of the universe. He is regarded as the keeper of flocks and herds and who brings prosperity.

7. Bṛhaspati: He is the chief offerer of prayers and sacrifices, and therefore represented as the type of the priestly order, and the Purohita of the gods with whom he intercedes for men. In later times he is the god of wisdom and eloquence, to whom various works are ascribed. He is also regarded as son of Aṅgiras, husband of Tārā and father of Kaca, and sometimes identified with Vyāsa.

8. Mitra: A Āditya and generally invoked together with Varuṇa. He is also associated with Aryaman (also a Āditya). Mitra is extolled alone in Rig Veda and there he is described as calling men to activity, sustaining earth and sky and beholding all creatures with unwinking eye.

9. Varuṇa: Varuṇa is one of the oldest of the Vedic gods. He is often regarded as the supreme deity, being then styled 'king of the gods' or 'king of both gods and men' or 'king of the universe'. No other deity has such grand attributes and functions assigned to him. He is described as fashioning and upholding heaven and earth, as possessing extraordinary power and wisdom called māyā, assending his spies or messengers throughout both worlds, as numbering the very winking of men's eyes, as hating falsehood, as seizing transgressors with his pāśa or noose, as inflicting diseases, especially dropsy, as pardoning sin, as the guardian of immortality. He is also invoked in the Veda together with Indra, and in later Vedic literature together with Agni, with Yama, and with Viṣṇu. Though not generally regarded in the Veda as a god of the ocean, yet he is often connected with the waters, especially the waters of the atmosphere or firmament.

10. Tvaṣṭa: He is the one who releases multitude of riches. He energises navel chakra (maṇipūraka).

11. Dhātṛ: A divine being who personifies these functions in Vedic times presiding over generation, matrimony, health, wealth, time and season, and associated or identified with Savitṛi, Prajāpati, Tvaṣṭṛi, Bṛihaspati, Mitra, Aryaman, Viṣṇu. Later considered mainly as the creator and maintainer of the world. One of the 12 Ādityas.

12. Viṣṇu: This Viṣṇu is different from Mythical Nārāyaṇa. For the formation of Brahmaṇaspati’s word and for the action of Rudra’s force, Viṣṇu supplies the required static elements and ordered the movements in the world. The supreme step of Viṣṇu, His highest seat is the triple world of bliss, light and paramam padam, often compared to heaven. Viṣṇu is the highest goal in one’s Vedic journey.

13. Aśvin-s: They are the two divine charioteers who appear in the sky before the dawn in a golden carriage drawn by horses or birds. They bring treasures to men and avert misfortune and sickness. They are considered as the physicians of heaven.

14. Marut-s: They are called storm gods. They are shining in nature. They are said to reside in the mid-world. They are also called gods of the wind and said to represent five primary prāṇa-s of the body. They are said to be the sons of Rudra and conquerors of foes, free from sins, purifiers of all, radiant as sun, powerful as evil spirits and diffusers of rain drops. They have numerous achievements to their credit. They are invoked to bring good food.

15. Viśve Deva-s: This means all gods. Veda says, “Universal Gods, protectors and supporters of men, come to the oblation and bestow rewards. Come to oblation like solar rays. Bring us water. They are not enumerated in detail in Vedas. In general they are called bounties of Nature.

16. Earth: Personified as Bhūmadevī. She is Mother Earth along with bountiful Nature and most of the times, She is identified along with the sky.

17. Antarikṣaṁ: The intermediate space between heaven and earth; known as atmosphere.

18. Heaven: The abode of light and of the gods, heavenly bliss and particularly, Indra's heaven or paradise to which the souls of virtuous mortals enter, until the time is ripe for them to be reborn. Celestial world.

19. Cardinal deities: Each god presides over one direction. Thus eight gods Indra, Agni, Yama, Niṛṛti, Varuṇa, Vāyu, Kubera or Soma and Īṣāna. They protect eight cardinals of the compass.

20. Worlds above: It refers to svar loka. We live on the Earth; then we move on to the mid world and then to svar loka, which is much beyond the celestial world. Svar loka is also known as Supra-celestial. It is not clear whether heaven and svar loka are the same. Subtly it conveys sahasrāra.

21. Prajāpati: Lord of creatures. A supreme god above or among the Vedic deities. Taittirīya Upaniṣad (II.8) explains bliss in an elaborate manner.  It multiplies several types of happiness by one hundred and finally says that happiness of Prajāpati (divinity presiding over procreation, protector of life) multiplied by one hundred times gives the happiness of Brahman (Bliss), the Ultimate.

Notes: Prayer in the sixth anuvāka: It is prayer to all the above mentioned gods to shower their respective grace on me.  Sixth anuvāka thus invokes all the deities mentioned above to come and bless the performer of vasordhārā by manifesting in the yajña. This is a prayer addressed to all the energies that sustain the universe.

Most of these gods are invoked in जयादिहोम jayādihoma, which is discussed in two parts in SIMPLE HOMA PROCEDURE – PART 4 and PART 5.