अंशु aṁśu - a kind of Soma libation, effulgence, planet moon; रश्मि raśmi – ray of light; अदाभ्य adābhya – the unassailable one, a libation (graha) in the Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice; अधिपति adhipati – power of over lord; उपांशु upāṁśu - in a whisper, particular Soma oblation, Venus planet; अन्तर्यामि antaryāmi – the individual soul, it is also a soma libation performed with suppression of the breath and voice; इन्द्र Indra – Indra; वायु vāyu – Vāyu; मैत्रा वरुणा maitrā varuṇā - Maitrā and Varuṇā; अश्विन् aśvin – Aśvin-s; प्रतिप्रस्थान pratiprasthāna – a vessel used in Soma sacrifice or foundation; शुक्र śukra – planet Venus; मन्थी manthī – churning or Soma-juice with meal mixed in it by stirring; आग्रयण āgrayaṇa - the first Soma libation at the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice, oblation consisting of fruits, also means leader; वैश्वदेव vaiśvadeva– all gods; ध्रुव dhruva – a polar star by that name, the largest of the three sacrificial ladles or firmness; वैश्वानर vaiśvānara - belonging to all men, consisting of all men or Agni Vaiśvānara; ऋतुग्रह ṛtugraha - libation offered to the ṛtus or seasons; अतिग्राह्या atigrāhyā – three successive libations made in Jyotiṣṭoma sacrifice or firm hold of gods; इन्द्र Indra – Indra; अग्नि agni _Agni (Indra and Agni); वैश्वदेव vaiśvadeva – soma vessel or all gods, religious ceremony which ought to be performed morning and evening and especially before the midday meal (it consists in homage paid to the Viśve Devāh followed by the baliharaṇa or offering of small portions of cooked food to all the gods who give the food and especially to the god of fire who cooks the food and bears the offering to heaven; मरुत्वतीय marutvatīya - midday libation belonging to Indra, Marut-s or 3 Grahas; माहेन्द्र māhendra – great Indra or the energy or śakti of Indra, also referred as His Consort; आदित्य āditya – Āditya; सवित्र savitra - Savitṛ; सारस्वत sārasvata – Sarasvati; पौष्ण pauṣṇa - Pūṣan or Nakṣatra Revatī; पत्नीवत् patnīvat – accompanied by wives; हरियोजन hariyojana – bay horses or Indra (probably referring to aśvamedha yāgā).
Notes: Prayer in the seventh anuvāka:
The entire anuvāka discusses about offering soma juice oblations in different cups/vessels/ladles to various gods. Oblations are offered to sun, moon, Indra, Agni, Vāyu, Maitra and Varuṇa (they are friends), all beings, ṛtus or seasons (there are six ṛtu-s per year. Two lunar months together is known as one ṛtu), planet Venus, wife of Indra (or the power of Indra), Āditya-s (twelve āditya-s - dvādasa āditya-s, each āditya representing one solar month), Sarasvati, Pūṣan (regarded as the keeper of flocks and herds and the one who brings in prosperity; it also refers to Nakṣatra Revatī (Revati means wealthy, opulent, rich, prosperous), bay horses (it is a class of horses whose colour is brown and have hair, which is used in aśvamedha yāgā). All these gods are invoked along with their respective wives. Prayer to these gods and planets along with their wives.
इध्म idhma – small fire logs used for homa known as samith; बर्हिस् barhis - layer of kuśa grass; वेदि vedi – elevated sacrificial altar; धिष्णिय dhiṣṇiya – minor altars; स्रुच् sruc - large wooden ladle used for offering ghee on a sacrificial fire; चमस camasa - a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the Soma, a kind of flat dish or cup or ladle, generally in square in shape, made of wood a with a handle; ग्रावाण grāvāṇa – stores used for pressing soma plant to extract soma juice; स्वरव svarava – the tone in recitation of Vedic mantras or chips of wood while making soma cups, etc; उपरव uparava – a hole on which soma plant is grounded and in the process, there will sound due to grinding; अधिषवण adhiṣavaṇa – hand pressing for extracting and straining the soma juice; द्रोणकलश droṇakalaśa – A large wooden vessel to store soma juice; वायु vāyu – Vāyu; पूतभृत् pūtabhṛt - a vessel which receives the Soma juice after it has been strained; आधवनीय ādhavanīya - a vessel in which the soma plant is stirred and cleansed; आग्नीध्रं āgnīdhraṁ - the priest who kindles the fire in the altar; हविर्धान havirdhāna – the shed for soma plant carrying carts; गृह gṛha – home, probably referring to the family of the performer (family goes in procession along with the yajamāna and priests and this is known as agnīṣomapraṇayana); सद sada (sabhāsad सभासद्) – sitting places for gods during yajña. पुरोडाश puroḍāśa – sacrificial cakes; पचत pacata – cooked offerings; अवभृथ avabhṛtha - purification or ablution of the performer of yajña and sacrificial vessels (generally performed after completion of yajña); स्वहाकार svahākāra (svāhākāra स्वाहाकार) - utterance of or consecration by uttering Svāhā.
Notes: Prayer in the eighth anuvāka:
In this anuvāka requirements for performing a yajña is described and prayers are made to these equipment. Soma here refers to a sacred plant, which are found in high altitude mountains. As the name indicates, soma ritual involves procurement, washing, crushing and extraction of soma juice. Soma juice is also drunk (which causes slight intoxication) during the ritual both by the yajamāna and the chief priest. Kuśa grass is addressed as “Divine grass! I strew you soft as wool, a good seat for gods”. Gods mentioned in anuvāka 7 and 8 are invoked during tenth day of twelve day ceremony. They are not just homa-s as we do today. They are known as yāga and yajña, spreading over several days.
The prayer in this anuvāka is that blessings should be showered for prosperity and happiness from these soma plant and other equipment used in the yajña with which gods are propitiated.
अग्नि agni – Agni; घर्म gharma – heat of fire; अर्क arka – hymns in praise of gods; सूर्य sūrya – the sun; प्राण prāṇa - prāṇa, the life force; अश्वमेध aśvamedha – horse sacrifice (aśvamedha yāgā); पृथिवी pṛthivī – the earth; अदिति aditi – Aditi, a goddess. It also means boundlessness, immensity, inexhaustible abundance, unimpaired, perfection; (अदितिदेवो भव aditidevo bhava means guest is god); दिति diti – Diti, a goddess connected to Aditi; द्यौ dyau (दिव diva) – heaven; शक्करीरङ्गुलय śakkarīraṅgulaya – body parts of gods invoked (also means harmonious Vedic meters); दिश diśa – cardinal directions (gods presiding over them); यज्ञेन कल्पताम् yajñena kalpatām – may all these powers (all their grace) develop in me; ऋक् ṛk – Vedic mantras; सामन् sāman - Sāmaveda mantra; स्तोम stoma – a form of chant; stoma consists of five parts - prastāva, udgītha, pratihāra, upadrava, and nidhana; यजुः yajuḥ - Yajur Veda; दीक्षा dīkṣā – initiation (here it means, dedicating oneself to perform somayajña); तपस् tapas - religious austerity, penance, deep meditation; ऋतु ṛtu – seasons (already explained); व्रतं vrataṁ - religious vow or practice; अहोरात्र ahorātra – day and night; वृष्ट्य vṛṣṭya – rain; बृहत् bṛhat - various sāmans composed in the metrical form bṛihatī; रथन्तर rathantara – Sāmaveda mantra-s; यज्ञेन कल्पताम् yajñena kalpatām - may all these powers (all their grace) develop in me.
Notes: Prayer in the ninth anuvāka:
Prayers are made to Agni, the heat produced in the yāgā, sun, vital force called prāṇa, the horse that is used in aśvamedha yāga, Mother Earth, Aditi and Diti, two goddesses, heaven, different body parts of invoked gods and goddesses, cardinal gods, all the four Vedic mantras, one’s dedication to do the yāgā, penance, religious vows, six seasons of a year, rain pouring day and night (requesting the rain not to pour during yajña as these yajña-s have laborious processes), Vedic mantras composed in various meters. Let the grace of these gods and their powers be showered on me.