131. Sarvasākṣiṇī सर्वसाक्षिणी
She witnesses all the actions that happen in the universe. Brahman, though is the cause for the universe, does not partake in any of the actions that unfold in the universe. All individual actions are determined by one’s karma. Accrual of karmas can be stopped, only if one surrenders to Her through mind. Mind is the only factor that needs to be purified, while pursuing spiritual path.
Lalitā Sahasranāma 384 Viśvasākṣiṇī, also conveys the same meaning.
132. Sarvātmikā सर्वात्मिका
She is in the form of individual souls of all the beings. An individual soul is also the Self, but sheathed by ignorance or avidyā is placed within a physical body and is known as jīva. Collective ignorance of all the jīva-s is known as Īśvara, who is also known as Saguṇa Brahman (Brahman with attributes).
133. Sarvasaukhyadātrī सर्वसौख्यदात्री
She endows welfare, happiness, felicity, etc to those who perpetually contemplate Her. Taittirīya Upaniṣad (II.vii) explains this thus: “eṣa hyevānyānandayāti” which means that the Self within us is the source of our bliss. But this bliss is not realized due to spiritual ignorance, known as māyā. By gaining knowledge about Her, māyā can be transcended, which ultimately leads to realization.
134. Sarvavimohinī सर्वविमोहिनी
She attracts people towards Her and make them to contemplate on Her, by removing spiritualmystification and ignorance.
She is not only the source of māyā, but also removes māyā and this concept is subtly conveyed through this nāma.
Kṛṣṇa also explains this concept Bhagavad Gītā (VII.12-14). “Whatever the beings born with sattva or rajo or tamo guṇa-s, know, that these guṇa-s originated from me. Though, they originated from Me, in reality I am not in them. The beings are deluded by the effects of these guṇa-s. Hence, they fail to know me, as immutable and distinct from them. This is because, the Divine illusion comprising of these three guṇa-s is difficult to transcend. However, those who perpetually take refuge in Me alone are able to transcend my illusion.”
135. Sarvādhārā सर्वाधारा
She is the substratum of everything. With Her support, beings are born, grow and perish.
Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (XIV.27), “I am the ground of imperishable Brahman, of immortality, of the eternal virtue of unending bliss.”
Lalitā Sahasranāma 659 is also Sarvādhārā and is explained as follows: “She supports everything in this universe or everything rests on Her. She supports the universe with the aid of three energies, icchāśakti-jñānaśakti-kriyāśakti-s. She is in the form of both gross matters and subtle matters (Her subtlest form is kuṇḍalinī). All that exists between these two extremes are supported by Her. She has the will to support, She has the knowledge to support and She supports with Her actions (creation, sustenance and dissolution).”
136. Sarvagatā सर्वगता
She is omnipresent. Sarvagata means omnipresent, which is the unique nature of Brahman. She pervades the entire universe, but does not take part in any of the actions that unfold in the universe. Though She is the cause of creation, She does not take part in any of the individual actions. However, She remains as a witness to all the actions. This is an exclusive quality of Brahman.
137. Sarvāvaguṇavarjitā सर्वावगुणवर्जिता
She is devoid of three guṇa-s. She is both an embodiment of three guṇa-s and at the same time, She is devoid of guṇa-s. This can be explained through the following two nāma-s of Lalitā Sahasranāma.
Nāma 984 says tri-guṇā, which is explained thus: She is in the form of three guṇa-s or qualities viz sattvic, rajas and tamas. Sattva guṇa means the quality of purity and knowledge. The presence of other two guṇa-s is not very prominent in sattva guṇa as this guṇa is endowed with the highest purity. Rajo guṇa is the activity of passion. Tamo guṇa is inertia or ignorance. These two guṇa-s have higher trace of other guṇa-s. Guṇa-s are the inherent qualities of prakṛti. Ego and intellect originate from guṇa-s that are present in all the evolutes of prakṛti at once, but distributed in unequal proportions in each individual. The predominant guṇa that prevails in an individual is reflected through his thoughts and actions.
Kṛṣṇa explains guṇa-s in Bhagavad Gīta (IV.6 - 9) “Sattva, rajas and tamas - these three qualities born of Prakṛti (Nature) tie down the imperishable soul to the body. Of these, sattva being immaculate is illuminating and flawless; it binds through identification with joy and wisdom. The quality of rajas, with is of the nature of passion, as born of avariciousness and attachment. It binds the soul through attachment to actions and their fruits. Tamas, the deluder of all those who look upon the body as their own self, are born of ignorance. It binds the soul through error, sloth and sleep. Sattva drives one to joy, and rajas to action, while tamas clouding the wisdom incites one to err as well as sleep and sloth.” Chapter of Bhagavad Gīta XIV extensively deals with guṇa-s. Kṛṣṇa again says (Bhagavad Gīta XIV.20) “Having transcended the aforesaid guṇa-s, which have caused the body, and freed from birth, death, old age and all kinds of sorrow, this soul attains the supreme bliss.”
Nāma 139 nir-guṇa says that She is devoid of guṇa-s and nāma 984 says that She is the embodiment of guṇa-s. This is not a contradiction. Nāma 139 refers to Her nirguṇa Brahman (without attributes) status and nāma 984 refers to Her saguṇa Brahman (with attributes) status.
138. Sarvāruṇā सर्वारुणा
Sarvam + aruṇam = everything in red. Everything associated with Her is red. This fact has been highlighted in various nāma-s. Saundarya Laharī (verse 93) says karuṇā kācid aruṇā meaning that Her compassion which is red in colour is beyond comprehension.
Yajur Veda (18.104.22.168) ‘saysasau yastāmro aruṇa uta babhruḥ sumangalaḥ’ (this comes under Śrī Rudraṁ 1.7) which says that aruṇa (the colour of the sun at the time of dawn) is copper red in colour which is auspicious. ‘The colour of red is auspicious’ says Śruti (Veda-s). No other authority is needed to ascertain Her complexion.
Lalitā Sahasranāma 49 is also Sarvāruṇā.
139. Sarvamātā सर्वमाता
During archana, it is recited as sarvamātre namaḥ.
She does not differentiate between the beings. She evaluates every person based on his karmic account and his ability to perpetually stay connected with Her through mind. This evaluation is like evaluation in a university.
At the same time, She nurtures all Her created beings, like a mother nurturing her child. This is explained in the first nāma of Lalitā Sahasranāma, which is given below.
We address our mother as mātā. Mātā means mother. The human mothers can take care of their children with love and affection. But they cannot remove the miseries and sufferings of their loved ones, which they are destined to undergo. Since Lalitāmbikā is much more than a human mother is, She has the capacity to remove sorrows and miseries of Her children. Children mean all the living beings in this universe, as She is the mother of the entire universe that includes the galaxy. She is addressed as mātā as She is the Creator, sustainer and also the dissolver. The universe was created out of Her. The universe acts as per Her instructions. When the dissolution takes place, the universe merges back into Her. The cycle of saṃsāra (the world which has phenomenal existence and also meaning transmigration) repeats itself by birth, sustenance and death. Saṃsāra is called as an ocean. It is difficult to swim against the current of saṃsāra. The current of saṃsāra is produced by sense organs. These sense organs in turn influence the mind that causes desires and attachments. Only Śrī Mātā is capable of helping us to cross the hurdles of saṃsāra and reach the destination (realization of Brahman). This is possible only by worshipping Her.
Śrī Mātā is also said to mean the mother of the Goddesses Śrī Lakṣmī (goddess of wealth), Sarasvatī (goddess of knowledge) and Rudrānī (the goddess of dissolution) the wife of Rudra. Rudra is different from Śiva. Therefore Mātā means the mother of these three goddesses.
Durvāsā is a great saint. He composed Śrī Śaktimahimnaḥ Stotram containing sixty one verses in Her praise. He surrenders to Her by saying “Oh! Mātā! the Supreme compassionate! I had born to a number of mothers. In future also, I may be born to a number of mothers. My mothers are countless, as I had different mothers for my different births. I am so scared to be born again and to undergo the associated sufferings. Oh! Mātā! I am surrendering to you. Please give me relief from my future births.”
140. Sarvābharaṇbhūṣitā सर्वाभरण्भूषिता
She is adorned with all types of ornaments. The Kālika Purāṇa mentions forty types of ornaments. Parasurāma Kalpa Sūtra, one of the authoritative texts on Śrī Cakra pūja (ritual worship) mentions more number of ornaments that adorn Her.
Her ornaments are not different from those worn by human beings, as She remains in all the beings as the Self.