Nirupādhiḥ निरुपाधिः (154)

She is without upādhi. Upādhi means limitations. Due to upādhi an unlimited thing appears as limited. For example, the sky or a ākaś appear as limited whereas in reality, it is infinite. Upādhi can also be explained as the imposition of a character on an object which really does not possess.  For example, a hibiscus flower placed with a crystal.  Crystal is colourless.  Because of the red colour of the hibiscus, the crystal also appears red in colour. This is also upādhi. Upādhi is made up of upa which means near and ādhi means attributes.  Ignorance is called upādhi as the effect of ignorance is reflected in the speech and actions of an ignorant person.  She is without such upādhi or She is without limitations.  Brahman is beyond limitation. 

Śiva is devoid of colour and transparent.  He appears like a crystal.  Śaktī is red in colour as per dhyān verses of this Sahasranāma. When She sits by the side of Śiva, He also appears to have red complexion. Gods and goddesses confuse this scene for the rising sun.  This is also upādhi.

Nīriśvarā नीरिश्वरा (155)

Iśvara means superior or master. She does not have a superior.  She is the Supreme ruler.  One may argue that Śiva is above Her in hierarchy.  Śiva has certain well defined acts that include creation of Śaktī out of His prakāśa form, acting as the static partner in creation but Himself not partaking in the acts of creation, sustenance and dissolution.  Śiva does not interfere with Her administration (vimarśa form of Śaktī). Hence it is said that She does not have a superior.

Though there are many other interpretations for these nāma-s, this book has taken into account the explanations available to qualify the Brahman.  When the qualities of the Brahman are being discussed, it is inappropriate to interpret nāma-s in a way different from what they are intended for.    

With this nāma the description of qualities of Her nirguṇa Brahman form ends.  Though the Brahman does not have qualities, one could be wondering why Vāc Devi-s mention about the qualities of the Brahman.  As said earlier, for a common man, the Brahman can be qualified by negations, as the Brahman cannot be realized by sensory perceptions.  Hence prefixes niṣ or nir (negation) is used in all these nāma-s (132-155 except 141).  Knowledge of the Brahman starts with ‘not that’ and ends with ‘I am That’.  The first that is negation and second That is affirmation. Any affirmation is possible only if one has comprehensive knowledge of the subject concerned.  Nāma-s 156 to 195 discuss about the fruits of worshipping Her formless form.

Nīrāgā नीरागा (156)

Rāga means desire.  She is without desire.  Though this nāma and a few subsequent nāmas may appear similar to the previous group, in fact they are not so.  Antaḥkaraṇa consists of four components mind, intellect, consciousness (in a manifested form in the mind) and ego.  These four in no way are connected to the Atman or the Brahman.  The components of antaḥkaraṇa are impediments to self-realization. Apart from antaḥkaraṇa there are six other deterrents viz. desire, anger, jealousy, confusion, pride and envy.  These six need no explanation as a mere look at these words will show how dangerous they are.  These nāma-s explain the means to get disassociated from these.  First, Vāc Devi-s explained the concept of the Brahman and now they proceed to explain how to realise the Brahman, a true step-by-step guidance to Self-realization. 

Rāgamathanī रागमथनी (157)

She destroys the desires of Her devotees.  This is the first of various benefits accruing out of worshipping Her Brahman form (the formless form).   Desire is the prime impediment in spiritual pursuit that keeps a person bonded to worldly attachments. 

Patañjali Yoga Sūtra (II.3) says, “The five pain bearing obstacles in one’s life are ignorance and its effects.  The effects are egoism, attachment, aversion, clinging to life.”