Mahā-bhogā महा-भोगा (219)

She is the embodiment of immeasurable happiness. All that prevails in this universe is wealth for Her, as She presides over the universe.

Mahaiśvaryā महैश्वर्या (220)

She depicts the all pervading attribute of the Brahman, the manifestation of universe.  This is called vibhūti, the supra normal splendour of the Brahman. She is the svātantryaya śakti (the power of autonomy, the Absoslute freedom, vimarśa śakti) of Śiva and She manifests the universe through this power.

Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gīta (X.18, 19), “there is no limit to my magnitude. I am the universal Self seated in the heart of all beings; so I alone am the beginning and middle and also the end of all beings.”

Iśvaryā means wealth, the wealth in the form of Her grace.

Mahā-vīryā महा-वीर्या (221)

There are several meanings for the word vīrya.  Generally it means courage, power, lustre, dignity, energy, etc.  She is the reservoir of all these qualities and She provides these qualities to Her devotees depending upon the depth of devotion. 

Mahā-balā महा-बला (222)

Bala means strength.  She is mighty, the quality of the Brahman.  But based on the explanation given in nāma 219, Her thought alone gives comforts, wealth, courage etc.  Vāc Devi-s describe the qualities of the Brahman through these nāma-s.  The Brahman is explained in two ways.  One is by negation, saying this is not Brahman or that is not Brahman.  Another is by affirmation of certain attributes like courage, auspiciousness, intellect, happiness, etc.  But in reality, the Brahman is to be realized out of nothingness. 

Mahā-buddhiḥ महा-बुद्धिः (223)

She is intelligence personified.  Intelligence is another quality of the Brahman.  Intelligence can be explained as knowing That which explains everything else.  Chāndogya Upaniṣad  (VI.1.3) says, “That teaching by which what is never heard of becomes heard, what is never thought of becomes thought, what is never known becomes known.”  Such intelligence can be given only by Her and that is why She is called as mahā-buddhiḥ.

{Further reading on buddhi: Buddhi is a product of mind.  In the process of evolution, antaḥkaraṇa  originates first.  Antaḥkaraṇa works internally as against other tattva-s that work externally through senses.  Antaḥkaraṇa consists of mind and its modifications.  They are cittā (the individual conscience), buddhi (intellect), manas (mind) and ahaṁkār (ego).  Chitta is the blemished reflection of pure consciousness. The other three, buddhi, manas and ahaṁkār are highly subtle in nature.  Buddhi is also known as mahatMahat literally means great. It is the source of mind and ego.  It is the cause of phenomenal universe. It not only helps in comprehending the material world, but also helps in establishing commune with the Brahman.  Without intellect, Brahman can never be realised. Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad  (VI.5) says, “It is the ignorance that leads to being born again and again.”  Ignorance can be conquered only by intellect.} 

Mahā-siddhiḥ महा-सिद्धिः (224)

She is the ultimate form of attainment.  Siddhi means supreme felicity, bliss, beatitude, complete sanctification, final emancipation obtained through penance.  There are eight important siddhi-s known as super-human powers or aśtamā sidhhi-s (aśtamā means eight).  These eight sidhhi-s are aṇimā, laghimā, prāptiḥ, prākāmyam, mahimā, īśitvaṃ, vaśitvaṃ, kāmāvasāyitā.  

Kṛṣṇa says in Uddhava Gita (X.3) “Those who are expert in concentration and yoga call the powers eighteen in number.  Eight of these are pertaining to me and the remaining ten are to a perfection of sattva.  Minuteness, immensity, lightness of the body (aṇimā, laghimā, mahimā), connection of being with his organs known as attainment (prāptiḥ), capacity to derive enjoyment from everything heard or seen (prākāmyam), exerting an influence on all, known as rulership (īśitvaṃ), non-attachment to sense objects called self control (vaśitvaṃ) and consummation of any and every desire (vaśitvaṃ) are considered as my natural powers.”

 But these super human powers are trivial to a true devotee.  Undoubtedly She confers on Her devotees who pursue the path of meditation, these aṣṭama siddhi-s.  But a true devotee does not bother about these super human powers and dumps these illusionary powers with the sole aim of realizing Her. 

Mahā-yogeśvareśvarī महा-योगेश्वरेश्वरी (225)

She is the ruler of yoga and sought after by great yogis.  Yoga is the practice by which an individual consciousness is merged with the universal consciousness.  Yoga means to unite.  It is the union of body, mind and Spirit.  Those who have attained this state are called yogis.  Such yogis seek Her benediction through meditation to stay attuned with Her.

Mahā-tantrā महा-तन्त्रा (226)

Tantra is a way of worship.  She Herself is the great tantra or all tantra-s lead to Her. 

{Further reading on tantra: Practicing rituals strictly in accordance with the procedures laid down by Tantra śāstra-s will yield a faster effect, than following the procedures laid down by Veda śāstra-s. It cannot be said that tantric rituals are disowned by Vedas, as the Atharva Veda discusses certain rituals including usage of various herbs. Barring a few rituals, certain herbs and amulets, Atharva Veda does not discuss any elaborate tantric practice. Therefore it should not be construed that the tantric rituals have the stamp and authority of Vedas. Tantra śāstra-s have been wrongly interpreted, making others frown upon the laid down procedures. There is a lot of misconception about tantra śāstra-s. In fact the rituals laid down by tantra śāstra-s are tougher and needs immense suffering and sacrifice to achieve the desired results. The main components of tantra śāstra-s are mantra and yantra. Tantra itself is a combination of various scientific factors. For example astronomy, astrology, anatomy, study of herbs (ayurveda), geometry (for drawing yantra), etc are certain basic principles of tantra śāstra. One need to be better informed for practicing tantric rituals. The one important factor of tantric ritual is worshipping a form of Goddess as opposed to the teachings of Upaniṣad. All the tantra śāstra-s are said to have been told to Pārvatī by Her consort Śiva. Śiva himself says that in kaliyug, tantra śāstra works better than other śāstra-s. It is difficult to trace the origin of tantra śāstra-s. But it is prevalent in most of the Asian countries such as India, China, Japan, Tibet, etc. Buddhism also has mantra-s of tantric nature like Hinduism.

The importance of Vedic rituals is losing ground simply because in the present times, nobody is able to follow the procedures prescribed by Veda-s as they are elaborate. Purity of mind and body is paramount in Vedic rituals as opposed to tantric rituals, though tantra also lays down its own rules for purity. Again mantra-s prescribed by Veda-s are different from the mantra-s prescribed by tantra-s. The Vedic mantra-s may not have the same potency as that of tantric mantra-s in today’s scenario. Tantra śāstra-s, even today are kept as a closely guarded secret mainly on two accounts. If procedures are properly followed, the effect of such rituals is imminent. It could be possible that certain practitioners might use this for a destructive purpose. Secondly, a person who knows all the tantric rituals do not want to share his acquired knowledge with someone else purely out of ego.

The master-disciple relationship (guru-śiṣya) is the most important factor in tantra sastra. Master always chooses his disciples. Once the choice is made by the guru, the disciple is first initiated into a mantra. Guru alone decides the nature of mantra to be initiated. Most of the tantric mantra-s are about Śaktī. In fact, some call Śaktī worship itself as a tantric ritual. But in reality it is not so, as Śaktī is worshiped both by Veda-s and tantra-s. The idea behind Śaktī worship is her kinetic nature and secondly She is affectionately called as ‘Ma’ meaning mother, who is capable of fulfilling the desires of Her children. The procedure of initiation of a mantra is not a mere formality, but accompanied by a number of rituals. Each disciple will have different mantra-s. These mantra-s are to be recited for a prescribed number of times. Once this is done, other formalities follow. The difference in interpretation of tantra lies only in the so called other formalities.}

Mahā-mantrā महा-मन्त्रा (227)

She is the embodiment of all mantra-s.  All mantra-s originate from the fifty one alphabets of Sanskrit.  These fifty one letters are worn around Her neck in the form of a garland and all the mantra-s originate from this garland. This nāma could also mean Her Pañcadśi and ṣodaśī mantra-s, that are considered supreme amongst all mantra-s.

{Further reading on mantra-s:  In tantric philosophy, mantra-s play a very significant role, as tantrism attach greater significance to the powers of words (known as vāc). Vāc is predominantly identified with Śaktī. In Sanskrit, each alphabet or a compound alphabet is known as bīja and a number of bīja-s constitute a mantra. Bīja is explained as the mystical letter or syllable which forms the essential part of the mantra of any deity.  Bīja is also explained as the primary cause or principle, source or origin. Bīja is like a seed.  The effect of mantra-s can be compared to the manifestation of a gigantic tree from a tiny seed.   Tantrism is designed in such a way that it infuses sound energy to mantra-s that manifests in whatever way it is used for. Mantra-s do not get energised by mere mundane repetition. The procedures of energising mantra-s are dealt elaborately in various tantra texts.  Characteristic feature of tantra śāstra is the appropriate usage of powers of mantra-s. Every ritual used in tantra is accompanied by formation of mantra-s.  The powers of mantra-s are so great that they can become fully functional, provided they are enunciated in the prescribed way.  Mantra-s are the continuation of divine energy, restricted to either a particular deity or the Brahman or the Absolute, depending on the mantra-s used.  For example, Pañcadaśi and ṣodaśī are capable of providing only the final liberation of the soul.  They will not give siddhi-s. The choice of mantra-s is normally decided by one’s guru, depending upon on disciple’s ambition and capabilities.} 

Mahā-yantrā महा-यन्त्रा (228)

Two interpretations are possible for this nāma.  Mahā-yantr could mean Śrī cakrā in the midst of which She lives.  Śrī cakrā is considered as the Supreme of all yantra-s, hence mahā-yantra.  Secondly, Her form Itself represents Śrī cakrā.

{Further reading on yantra:  If tantra, mantra and yantra are made to act in unison, the results are achieved much faster. In particular, the combination of mantra and yantra is an essential requisite to attain the benefits as prayed.  Yantra is nothing but a diagram, mostly containing criss crossed lines and bīja-s. A properly consecrated yantra becomes a shelter of the concerned deity and becomes a sanctified energetic source, through which the practitioner can establish cosmological contact with the concerned deity. There are various preconditions for formulating a yantra such as, materials for writing, the ink, the type of pens to be used, auspicious time, etc.  The consecrated yantra should be kept secretively in a sanctified place, as these yantra-s emanate divine energy. Astrological remedies are also possible by using proper yantra-s and mantra-s.}