Yugandhara युगन्धरायुगन्धरा (657)

‘yuga’ means a time period. The existence of the universe is divided into four time periods. Several years form a yuga. The four yugas are satya yuga (also known as krta yuga), treta yuga, dvapara yuga and kali yuga. Each yuga said to consist of millions of years forming a cycle and the total period of all yugas is 4.32 million years. At the end of this cycle, maha-pralaya or the great dissolution (annihilation) takes place and the next cycle of creation begins. She is the controller of this cycle of time.

The word ‘yugam’ also means yoke or a connection between two objects of the same group or a pair. In this context it can be said that She connects Shiva and Herself. This goes to prove the fact either Shiva or Shakthi as an independent entity cannot function without this yoke.

Icchashakthi-jnanashakthi-kriyashakthi-svarupini इच्छाशक्ति-ज्ञानशक्ति-क्रियाशक्ति-स्वरूपिणी  (658)

She is in the form of three energies – the energy of will, the energy of wisdom and the energy of action. These energies form a part of “Trishika”. Trishika (tri + ishika) means analysis of three. Tri means three and ishika means ‘Ishvari’, the power, abiding in divine consciousness. She is the controller of all triads in the process of creation. For example, the three acts of the Brahman, creation, sustenance and dissolution. Though She is said to be Ishvari of creation, etc, She is not different from Shiva. The supreme divine consciousness on the point of expansion according to Her inherent nature is iccha Shakthi. The actual process of expansion is jnana Shakthi and the process of diversity leading to creation of the universe is kriya Shakthi. The One who is the possessor of all three shakthis or energies is known as ‘para-shakthi’ or the Supreme energy.

Tantraloka (III.111) says that when kriya Shakthi is accomplished in the phases represented by iccha Shakthi and jnana Shakthi, in the inner manifestation, the Supreme Reality of Shiva is realized.

Sarvadhara सर्वाधारा (659)

She supports everything in this universe or everything rests on Her. She supports the universe with the aid of three energies discussed in the previous nama. She is in the form of both gross matters and subtle matters (Her subtlest form is kundalini). All that exists between these two extremes are supported by Her. She has the will to support, She has the knowledge to support and She supports with Her actions (creation, sustenance and dissolution).

Supratishta सुप्रतिष्टा (660)

She is the foundation of all existence. This nama signifies that without Her will, knowledge and action none can exist. Foundation is deeper than support. Krishna says (Gita VIII.20, 21) “Beyond this Unmanifest, there is yet another unmanifest Existence, that Supreme Divine Person, who does not perish even though all beings perish. The same Unmanifest which has been spoken of as the Indestructible is also called the supreme goal; that again is My supreme abode, attaining which, they return not to this mortal world.”

Sadasad-rupa-dharini सदसद्-रूप-धारिणी (661)

She is in the form of sat and a-sat. Sat means permanent and a-sat means not permanent. There is nothing permanent except the Brahman, therefore Brahman is sat. All are impermanent except the Brahman and therefore the universe with all its existence is a-sat. She is in the form of both permanent and impermanent or existent and non-existent. Impermanency is the product of permanency.

Taittiriya Upanishad (II.vii) says “At first there was no world. There was only Brahman. The world was then in Brahman, who was unmanifested. The world, with all its names and forms then manifested itself.” The exact wording of the Upanishad is ‘Idam agre asat vai asit’.

Chanddogya Upanishad (VI.ii.2) asks “What proof is there for this that from nothing something has emerged? Before this universe came into existence, there was only one existence without a second.”

 Sage Patanjali also says (I.9) “Verbal delusion follows from words having no corresponding reality.”

This nama says that ‘a-sat’ came into being from ‘sat’ or the universe came into existence from the Brahman. If the Brahman is known as Shiva, then the universe is known as Shakthi. There is no difference between Shiva and Shakthi (refer nama 999). Impermanency follows permanency or ‘a-sat’ follows ‘sat’. Sat and a-sat coexist. If they do not co-exist, then there is neither Brahman nor universe. Sat and asat are human perception but in reality they are not different. Asat is the mirror image of sat.

Ashtamurthi अष्टमूर्तिः (662)

She is eight fold. Both Shiva and Shakthi are eight fold. Eight forms of Shiva are Bhavan, Sharvan, Ishanan, Pashupathi, Rudran, Ugran, Bhiman and Mahaan. Shakthi’s eight forms are known through Brahmi, Maheshvari, Kowmari, Vaishnavai, Varahi, Mahendri, Chamunda and Mahalakshmi. It is said that a soul is divided into eight categories based on the quality of the soul. If soul is embedded with more karmas it is not considered as pure and the soul with least karmic account is considered as the purest. The purest form of the soul is not born in the earth, but born as angels or super human forms. Taking these as the two extremes, the eight forms of the soul are classified as follows. 1. Soul or jiva, 2. inner self or antaratman, 3. Supreme Self or Paramatman, 4. untainted-atman or nirmaltman, 5. pure self or shuddhatman, 6. knowledgeable self or jnanatman, 7. great self or mahatman, 8. basic self or bhutatman.

The five basic elements and sun, moon and soul are considered as the eight types of bodies. The authors of this Sahasranamam are eight Vak Devis.

Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita (VII.4 and 5) “Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, reason and ego constitute my eightfold. This indeed is My lower nature.” When Krishna says lower nature, naturally there has to be a higher nature which is known as the Supreme Consciousness or the Brahman.

Based on the principle of omnipresent nature of the Brahman, whatever form of existence is the beingness of the Brahman only. These eight dimensional forms or attributes merge together to form the Brahman. It would be wise to say that these eight dimensional forms originated from the Brahman and each of the eight forms of Shiva or Shakthi represents an aspect of the Brahman. Be it multidimensional or non-dimensional, every part of existence is Her form only, which is conformity of Her omnipresence nature.