Bhāvajñā भावज्ञा (841)

Bhāva has too many meanings: becoming, transition into, continuance, condition, character, intention, to make a firm resolution, learned man, universe, womb, superhuman power, meditation, etc.

This nāma can fit into any of the above meanings. Different scriptures have attributed different contextual interpretations to Bhāva. In the present context this nāma means that She is the knower of bhāva of all beings. She knows mental modifications of men. Some will have dual characteristics. What they think will be different from what they speak. She knows the thoughts of such men. If She happens to know that one’s thoughts and actions differ, She punishes them in terms of nāma 827 pracaṇḍā.

The root of bhāva is bhu, the unconditioned. Nāma-s like 397, 398 and 399 have already discussed Her unconditioned state. 

In an ancient treatise known as Yogini hṛdaya six types of interpretations are given to Pañcadaśī mantra and one among them is bhāvārta.

It can be said that this nāma refers to Her different lineaments and attributes.

Bhava-rogaghnī भव-रोगघ्नी (842)

Bhava is used here to mean saṃsāra or worldly life. Saṃsāra  is referred to as a disease and She relieves the pains of saṃsāraŚiva is said to be the alleviator of miseries of saṃsāra.  Bhava (root word is bhū) also means Śiva and his consort Śaktī.  Both of them alleviate the pains of worldly life. Roga means disease. 

Śrī Viṣṇu Sahasranāma nāma-s 578 and 579 refer to this attribute of the Brahman. Rig Veda (II.33.4) says bhiśaktamaṃ ava bhiśajāṃ sriṇomi which means ‘I hear You to be the most competent one among physicians.’ Physician because, She cures the disease of saṃsāra.

Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gīta (IX.1) “I shall now unfold the most secret knowledge of nirguṇa Brahman along with the knowledge of divinity, knowing which you shall be free from the evil of saṃsāra.”

{For further reading:  Saṃsāra (transmigration of existence) can be explained as the continuous process of birth and death. This is due to ignorance or a-vidyā.  Due to the prevailing ignorance, saṃsāra is embroiled in full of pairs and opposites.  It is unreal and full of unbearable sufferings and inconsequential pleasures.  It is under the sway of avidyā or nescience, a soul undergoes endless births, bound by passions, fears, desires and pains. The psychophysical view of human existence is closely related to the doctrine of karma or the law of karma. As long as one is bound by saṃsāra, realisation and ultimate liberation is not possible. Kṛṣṇa gives solution to get away from the clutches of saṃsāra.  He says “Desire, anger and greed, the triple gates of hell brings about the ruination of a soul. Therefore, one should avoid all these three.” (Bhagavad Gīta XVI.21)}

This nāma says that She frees Her devotees from the adversities of saṃsāra

Bhava-cakra-pravartinī भव-चक्र-प्रवर्तिनी (843)

Saṃsāra is compared to a wheel which is rotated by Her. Rotation of a wheel is compared to births and consequential deaths. A point in a wheel goes up and comes down and in the same way births and deaths happen like the rotation of a wheel, to those who indulge in saṃsāra.  Remedial measure to get away from the hardships of saṃsāra is discussed in the previous nāma.  It is said, ‘Wise men worship Hari (Viṣṇu), the remover of pain of those who seek refuge in Him.’

Bhava means Śiva, cakra means mind (as per Viṣṇu Purāṇa) and pravartini means guide. This means that She is the guiding factor of Śiva, the Supreme. This nāma once again confirms Her Brahmanic status. 

Chandaḥ sārā छन्दः सारा (844)

Chandas means meter, the study of poetic meter and the art of versification known as metrical science. Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (I.i.5) says that chandas is secular knowledge (aparā). Parā knowledge is spiritual. Sārā means the substance or essence or marrow or heart or essential part of anything, best part, etc.

Rig Veda (X.xiv.16) says “All the sacred meters, the tristubh (heaven), the gāyatrī (earth) and the remaining ones converge in the Lord of Cosmic Order.”

Chandas depends upon the number of letters in a word of a verse.  Chandas also mean the Vedic hymns.  The essence or the essential parts of Vedas are Upaniṣads.  This nāma says that She is well established in Upaniṣads

Gāyatrī chandas is considered as the most important of all chandasVarivasyā rahasya (I. 6, 7) says “Fourteen Vidyās have been declared to be expedients in this world to understand Her. Even among them the most essential are the Vedas and therein Gāyatrī.  She has two forms. One is recited in four Veda-s and other (Śrī Vidyā) is not clear, being esoteric.”  Therefore, it is apparent that Pañcadaśī mantra is superior than Gāyatrī (one recitation of Pañcadaśī mantra is equivalent to three recitations of Gāyatrī mantra), which is the form of all the four Vedas. Since, there is no differentiation between Her and Śrī Vidyā (Pañcadaśī), this nāma originated. This interpretation is further confirmed by another ancient tantric treatise Pingala Tantra, which discusses Śrī Cakra

Śāstra-sārā शास्त्र-सारा (845)

She is the essence of all śāstra-sBrahma Sūtra (I.i.3) says śāstrayonitvāt.  It says that Brahman is the source of scriptures. In other words, Vedas originated from the Brahman. This is because Vedas have all good qualities and cannot possibly originate from any other source, other than all-knowing Brahman. Yet another nāma that reconfirms Her Brahmanic status. 

Śāstra  can be explained as an order, command, precept, rule, teaching, instruction, direction, advice, good counsel. It is also said to be any instrument of teaching, any manual or compendium of rules, any book or treatise, especially any religious  treatise, any sacred book or composition of divine authority applicable even to the Veda, and said to be of fourteen or even eighteen kinds.

Mantra-sārā मन्त्र-सारा (846)

Mantra is the combination of bīja-s. Since She is Śabda Brahman and all the alphabets originate from Her. This nāma therefore says that She is the essence of all mantra-s. Please refer to nāma 204 sarva mantra svarūpiṇī.

{Further reading on mantra-s: Mantra is of later classical Sanskrit tradition. They are said to be of traditional formulae whose value consists precisely in the fact that sages of the primeval past have handed it down.  In Rig Veda alone, there are twenty one references to mantra. Mantra-s have the power and the source of that power is the truth and order that stands at the very centre of the Vedic universe.  The pure power encapsulated in a mantra and released upon its utterance can work for or against whoever uses it.  Should the user or beneficiary of mantra speak out of spite, malice or ignorance, the power unleashed by the even can be frightening, harmful, or even fatal.  It is a tool of human intentionality and said to be protean.  Mantra though is vital tool in the hands of humanity is also equally a troubling feature, as it is more often taken for granted.  Mantra-s are of many types such as domestic mantra-s, sacrificial mantra-s, pūja mantra-s, devotional mantra-s, japa mantra-s and bīja mantra-s. The last two, if properly initiated and practiced will turn out to be highly potent.}

Talodarī तलोदरी (847)

She has slender waist. Nāma 35 also describes Her waist.  

There is another interpretation.  If a अ is added to this nāma, it becomes atalodarī. When She assumes virāṭ form (nāma 778 virāṭ rūpā), Her waist becomes atala loka (one of the fourteen lokās of cosmography. Atala loka is eighth from the highest (purest).

Udāra-kīrtiḥ उदार-कीर्तिः (848)

Her invigorated fame prevails everywhere. She also gives fame to Her devotees. She grants fame quickly if properly worshipped, devoid of ego.  

ud is a prefix to indicate superiority, a means all pervading, ara means swift and kīrti means fame. Chāndogya Upaniṣad ( says “He is called ud because he is above all weakness”.

Her fame is compared to two famous lakes Ara and Nya in Brahma lokā. This is described in Chāndogya Upaniṣad (VIII.v.4) “When they attain the Brahma lokā (the abode of Brahman.  This should not be construed as material plane. This is the place of no return for the soul as defined by Brahma sūtra (IV.iv.2) which says, ‘The soul attains liberation’) through silence (referred as brahmacharya in the Upaniṣad), they can freely move in all the worlds (omnipresence). 

Uddhāma-vaibhavā उद्धाम-वैभवा (849)

Her glorification is not bound by limits. Dhāma means rope, which is used to bind materials. Her glory is beyond such bindings. 

Varṇa-rūpiṇī वर्ण-रूपिणी (850)

She is in the form of letters. Please refer nāma 577 mātṛkā varṇa rūpiṇī

According to Śāmbhava School (Pāṇiniśikṣhā, a treatise on correct pronunciation of words in Veda-s, particularly Rig Veda), the number of alphabets is sixty four (possibly including some punctuations).  She is said to be in the form of the sixty four alphabets referred here. 

Pāṇiniśikṣhā (verse 52) says that any mantra without proper pronounciation does not convey the intended meaning and instead it destroyus the one who recites with improper pronounciation.