तस्माद्विराडजयत विराजो अधि पुरुषः।

स जातो अत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद् भूमिमयो पुरः॥

tasmādvirāḍajayata virājo adhi puruṣaḥ |

sa jāto atyaricyata paścād bhūmimayo puraḥ || (I.5)

From Puruṣa luminance (virāj) is born and from luminance, the creative factor is born. By expanding, He exceeds the earth.

This verse confirms the conveyances of the previous verses. Primordial Puruṣa, who exists from the beginning came forth as virāj, which is also called virāḍ. Virāḍ is the end product of the macrocosm within a fully developed universe that is realized from experiment and observation rather than theory.  Pañcikaraṇam, a small treatise on Advaita philosophy by Śaṃkarācārya says. “The virāḍ is said to be the aggregate of all the quintuplicate elements and their effects”.  Those subtle elements produced the gross ones, from which again the virāṭ (the macrocosm) or the objective totality comes into existence.”  Again verse 11 says, “The gross elements are compounded.  These produce, the sum total of all the gross bodies.  This is the gross body of the disembodied Ātman.”  Virāṭ, virāj and virāḍ are the same. The process of creation is being discussed in this verse. Śrīmad Bhāgavata (XI.iv.2) says, “When Nārāyaṇa is the first and foremost Deity created with five primary elements evolved Himself, the universe as His body and entered into it by a part of His and acquired the name of Puruṣa.” Creation happens only from one fourth of His Grandeur and the rest three fourth remains only as His Grandeur.

{Alternate idea on creation: The soul, which is also known as puruṣa can manifest only if it interacts with prakṛti, which is also known as Nature, the creative self-unfoldment. When the soul gets associated with prakṛti, the latter unfolds first into subtle non-materialistic form and later into gross form.  When gross form is formed, it gives rise to three types of bodies called gross (sthūla), subtle (sūkṣma) and causal (kāraṇa).  Gross is the outer body, subtle and causal are the inner bodies.  Until a soul is liberated, subtle and causal bodies continue their association with the soul.  Only the gross body is perishable. The imperceptible impressions of many lives become embedded in these bodies, thereby causing predominance of certain qualities in the mind in each rebirth. They are the seeds of karmas that are embedded in a soul.}

By expanding, He exceeds the earth means, He is all pervasive. He is Cosmic Man and hence He is called omnipresent.

यत् पुरुषेण हविषा देवा यज्ञमतन्वत।

वसन्तो अस्यसीदाज्यम् ग्रीष्म इध्मः शरद्धविः॥

yat puruṣeṇa haviṣā devā yajñamatanvata |

vasanto asyasīdājyam grīṣma idhmaḥ śaraddhaviḥ || (I.6)

When gods performed sacrifices (yajña-s) with Puruṣa as the offering, spring season formed as sacrificial ghee, summer season as the log of woods (samidh) and the autumn as the holy offering itself.

It is said that during creation, first, gods were created. When gods came into existence, they saw shapeless mass of nebular matter. They wanted to create shapes and forms and decided to offer mental sacrifice to Puruṣa. They offered oblations with ghee, samidh and the oblation itself. Every oblation is offered to Puruṣa and as a result of this yajña, proper universe came into existence. The three seasons mentioned here means three periods of a day like, morning, evening and night. There are other interpretations on the three seasons.

सप्तास्यासन् परिधयः त्रिः सप्त समिधः कृताः।

देवा यद्यज्ञं तन्वानाः  अबध्नन् पुरुषं पशुम्॥

saptāsyāsan paridhayaḥ triḥ sapta samidhaḥ kṛtāḥ |

devā yadyajñaṁ tanvānāḥ  abadhnan puruṣaṁ paśum || (I.7)

This verse is the 15th rik in Rig Veda, but is 7th verse in Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, which is followed while recitation.

Seven are the enclosing pillars of thrice seven (3 x 7 = 21) pieces of samidh, when the liberated ones preparing for the sacrifice; tie up Puruṣa as an offering.

In fire ritual, there are samidh-s used as paridhi-s. There are 21 samidh-s for any homa, which is referred here as 3 x 7. Two bigger ones inside the homa kuṇḍa on the western side. They should be placed in vertical position, inside the homa kuṇḍa. These two are known āhāra samidh. Three samidh-s are placed in horizontal positions on all three sides except east. They are called paridhi (an enclosure, fence, wall, protection) and are known as madhyama, dakṣiṇa, uttara. Now we have 16 and out of this one is kept on the northern side. This will be used at the end (upasthāna – reaching the deity). Now we have 15. This is offered to Brahmā, the Lord of creation. This is what is mentioned as offering to Puruṣa. But as the gods perform this homa mentally, 12 months, five seasons, three worlds and the sun are contemplated as 21 samidh-s. Puruṣa is offered into the oblation as there was nothing apart from Him at the time of creation.

It subtly conveys that ancient saints and sages and gods prayed to Him both as the Lord and also offered Him in the sacrifice. It refers to material and efficient cause of the universe.

तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि प्रौक्षन् पुरुषं जातमग्रतः।

तेन देवा अयजन्त साध्या ऋषयश्च ये॥

taṁ yajñaṁ barhiṣi praukṣan puruṣaṁ jātamagrataḥ |

tena devā ayajanta sādhyā ṛṣayaśca ye || (I.8)

Gods, sages and saints began the yajña by placing Him in the yajña and worshiped Him. Along with Him, sages, saints and gods perform the sacrifice. (This conveyance is not seen in any other place in Rig Veda).

Puruṣa manifests through His one quarter, as discussed in the previous verses. This one quarter manifests as Prajāpati (Prajāpati means the Lord of all beings. Prajāpati is the creative aspect of the Brahman.  Vedas use Prajāpati in a number of verses.  To cite examples, Yajur Veda (II.i.2.1) says, “prajāpatiḥ prajā asṛjata jā asmāth sṛṣṭāḥ....... प्रजापतिः प्रजा असृजत जा अस्माथ् सृष्टाः......”.  Yajur Veda says that Prajāpati created successors.  They, being created from him.....”  Vedas use this word to mean the creative aspect of the Brahman.  In another place (V.vii.10.1), the Veda says, that Prajāpati created fire.  In yet another place (III.v.9.1), the Veda says, “all gods are Prajāpati”. Therefore Prajāpati refers to all the creative energies of the Brahman. Brahman does not create merely through His Free Will.  He created the universe through different evolutionary processes that are now being studied as science and are being endlessly researched. The creation happens from subtle to gross and annihilation happens from gross to subtle) and Virāj (which has been discussed in earlier verses). From these further creation happened. This way, Puruṣa is not only the Creator, but also material cause for giving shape and form to the universe. It is like spider casting its web from its own secretions.