अद्भ्यसंभूतः पृथिव्यै रसाच्च विश्वकर्मणस्समवर्तताधि।
तस्य द्वष्टाविदधद्रूपमेति तत्पुरुषस्य विश्वमाजान मग्रे॥
adbhyasaṁbhūtaḥ pṛthivyai rasācca viśvakarmaṇassamavartatādhi |
tasya dvaṣṭāvidadhadrūpameti tatpuruṣasya viśvamājāna magre || (2.1)
Virāṭ originated from water and essence of the earth. God presiding over the universe known as Virāṭ-Puruṣa originated from Viśvakarman, the Universal Creator. Virāṭ-Puruṣa’s visible form (this visible universe) came out of Viśvakarman. Thus creation started. Creation is further elucidated in this rik. In Vedas Viśvakarman is known as divine architect.
Viśvakarman is the Puruṣa, which we are discussing. Tattvabodha explains the gross body as “pañcīkṛta-pañcamahābhūtaiḥ” which means the modifications of the five great elements ether (ākāśa), air, fire, water and earth. This modification is called pañcīkaraṇa. The principle of pañcīkaraṇa is that the world comes into existence due to the transformation of five great elements. This happens only apparently in terms of advaita philosophy, as all that exists is nothing but the Brahman Himself. Pañcīkaraṇa, a miniature treatise of Śaṃkarācārya, says that virāṭ is the sum total of five elements and their effects. Virāṭ is the consciousness, which identifies with the gross body in the active state, in the case of an individual. Virāṭ at the macrocosmic level is fully developed universe that is realised from experiment rather than theory. Shape of a gross body is decided by karmic and subconscious imprints embedded in a soul. Brahman has four distinctive states. They are avyakṭā, Iśvarā, hiraṇyagarbha also known as sūtrātma and virāṭ. The first state is avyakṭā, the unmanifest stage. This is also known as turya stage, beyond the three normal stages of consciousness. The next state is Iśvarā. This state is the cause of the universe and is associated with māyā. The third state is hiraṇyagarbha, which binds the universe together like a thread. The final state is virāṭ, transfiguration of the divine happens that is visible to our eyes. The virāṭ is also known as vaiśvānarā, meaning relating or belonging to all men, omnipresent, known or worshipped, everywhere, universal, general, common, etc.
वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्तम् आदित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात्।
तमेवं विद्वानमृत इह भवति नान्यः पन्था विद्येतऽयनाय॥
vedāhametaṁ puruṣaṁ mahāntam ādityavarṇaṁ tamasaḥ parastāt |
tamevaṁ vidvānamṛta ieha bhavati nānyaḥ panthā vidyeta'yanāya || (II.2)
I (the author of this hymn, Nārāyaṇa Riṣi) realize this Puruṣa, who is great (beyond description) and shines like the sun deflecting darkness. The one who realizes Puruṣa like this attains liberation in this birth itself (jīvanmukta). There is no other way to attain liberation (except realizing Him).
Tattvabodha asks jīvanmuktaḥ kaḥ or who is jīvanmukta? It answers this question by saying “na puruṣaḥ (I am not a man), asaṁgaḥ (unattached), saccidānanda-svarūpaḥ (in the nature of existence-consciousness and bliss), prakāśarūpaḥ (illuminating), sarvāntaryāmī (the inner spirit of all that exist in the universe), cidākāśarūpaḥ (formless form) aparokṣa jñāna (the one who experiences and observes the true nature of I.” These are the attributes of Jīvanmukta. A jīvanmukta is the one who attains liberation during the existence of his body, but not bound by his bodily form. He always remains unattached to the materialistic world. Brahman has been explained as Saccidānanda, and a jīvanmukta knows that he is not different from the Brahman. Brahman alone is Self-illuminating and a jīvanmukta truly affirms that he is the Brahman and he realises the illumination of the Self within. He also knows that the Self within his body is omnipresent in nature and is present in all the beings of the universe, as a result of which, he is able to see the Brahman everywhere and the universal brotherhood automatically dawns on him. There is no difference between sthitaprajña and jīvanmukta, though it could be argued that jīvanmukta is the highest.
(Tattvabodha declares a secret. It says that those who praise and worship such a jñānin acquire the good karmas done by that jñānin. Brahman decided that all the good karmas of that yogi should not go waste. Since the Lord is companionate, He decided that those who serve and adore such a jñānin will get the good portion of the āgāmi karmas of the jñānin. On the contrary, if someone disrespects him, hates him or hurts him, he acquires bad portion of the āgāmi karmas of the jñānin, if any. This can practically be experienced in the presence of a true jīvanmukta by the feel of positive vibrations emanating from the jñānin.)
There is no other way to attain liberation except to know the Brahman or Puruṣa within. Any types of rituals or fasting or visit to holy waters and temples will not give relief from transmigration. It is only the mind that matters for liberation. Vivekacūḍamaṇi explains this further.
प्रजापतिश्चरति गर्भे अन्तः। अजायमानो बहुधा विजायते।
तस्यधीराः परिजानन्ति योनिम्। मरीचीनां पदमिच्छन्ति वेधसः॥
prajāpatiścarati garbhe antaḥ | ajāyamāno bahudhā vijāyate |
tasyadhīrāḥ parijānanti yonim | marīcīnāṁ padamicchanti vedhasaḥ || (2.3)
Prajāpati pervades the universe. Without being born, he appears in various shapes and forms. Wise men seek to know His real nature. Those who know His true nature seek to attain the status of Marīci and others like him.
Prajāpati is presiding over procreation and protector of life. Some scriptures say that Prajāpati and Brahmā are the same, whereas some others say that they are different and that Prajāpati is lower in status than Brahmā. Brahmā first created Marīci, Atri, Aṅgiras, Pulastya, Pulaka, Kratu, Vasiṣṭha, Dakṣa, Bhṛigu and Nārada known as Dakṣa Prajāpati-s.
This verse says two things. Prajāpati, also known as Brahmā presides over procreation of the universe and its beings. The one who thus knows this truth becomes immortal like other Prajāpati-s viz. Marīci, etc. Marīci also means rays of light of sun and moon. By knowing the truth of creation, one attains immortality.
Though this verse refers to Prajāpati, it subtly conveys only Puruṣa, as Prajāpati originated from Puruṣa only. What is conveyed here is that one who understands that it is only Puruṣa who manifests as the universe attains immortality like Marīci and others. That is why, we say that Brahman is omnipresent