242. Satkṛtaḥ सत्कृतः
He is worshipped by those who are worthy of worship in their own capacities. There are two kinds of men who are worthy of worship. Those who are well versed in Vedas and other scriptures and who become authorities on ritualistic worship, form the first kind. Because of their thorough knowledge on Holy Scriptures, they are worshipped. Second type of men are those who have realized the Self, known as jīvanmukta. The second type of men mostly goes unnoticed as they do not exhibit themselves by any specific attire or paraphernalia. The latter category merely exists in this world to ward off their remaining karmas and merge with the Brahman after their death. The first category of men has to undergo further spiritual transformation to attain the Brahman and is bound to be reborn. Brahman cannot be realized through rituals alone and one has to explore within to realize the Self.
Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (IX.13-15), “Those who are pursuing spiritual path, knowing Me as the source of all beings and eternal, worship Me all the time with single minded devotion, always chanting My names and glories, working hard to attain Me with determined devotion and prostrate before Me through meditation. Others worship My Absolute formless nature, as their own selves through knowledge. Yet others worship Me through My diverse celestial forms.”
This nāma says that Viṣṇu is worshipped by both the category of men. Both these categories of men are worthy of worship.
243. Sādhuḥ साधुः
Sādhu means righteous, honourble, virtuous, etc. The word also refers to a saint, sage or seer. Since Viṣṇu is the upholder of dharma, He is addressed here as Sādhu. He is an embodiment of all these qualities. A Sādhu is one, who never deviates from the path of virtues and without any wants.
244. Jahnuḥ जह्नुः
Brahman has five primary duties and they are creation, sustenance, dissolution, annihilation and recreation. Since Viṣṇu performs all these acts, He is adored as the Brahman. This particular nāma refers to the act of annihilation. When the balance between sin and virtues tilt towards sins, Brahman chooses to annihilate the entire universe and recreates again to uphold virtues.
Jahnu also refers to a dark enclosed space, which can be explained as the seat of the soul.
245. Nārāyaṇaḥ नारायणः
Nārāyaṇa can be better explained through Mahānārāyaṇa Upaniṣad, chapter XIII, called Nārāyaṇa sūktaṁ, which consists of 12 verses. The Upaniṣad says, “Nārāyaṇa is the Brahman. He is the Self and the Supreme Light. The world is pervaded by Nārāyaṇa both within and externally. He dwells in the heart as described in all the Upaniṣad-s. He is the Self illuminating Brahman.”
Because He is the abode of all the beings He is called Nārāyaṇa. This is the most commonly uttered name of Viṣṇu. ॐ नमो नारायणाय Om namo Nārāyaṇāya is called aṣṭākṣarī mantra (containing eight syllables). Om namaśivāya is known pañcākṣarī mantra (containing five syllables).
246. Naraḥ नरः
This nāma has originated from the previous nāma. Nara refers to a man and nāra means the entire humanity. Viṣṇu guides the entire humanity. He guides the humanity towards liberation. The ignorant ones never follow His guidance and continue to be deluded by māyā. The eternal liberation continues to be elusive to them.
Spiritually speaking, there is no difference between nara and nāra. The Brahman is all pervasive, be it an individual or the entire beings. If this reality is understood, a religious person begins to transform into a spiritual personality.
This nāma is used to worship Him as the ultimate guide to the humanity.
247. Asaṁkhyeyaḥḥ असंख्येयः
He manifests in different shapes and forms. Only the external shapes and forms are different. The inner Self always remains the same in all the beings. That is why, great importance is attached to universal brotherhood. Universal brotherhood means not only being compassionate to the fellow humans but all the fellow living beings. The Self within in a man, an animal or a plant does not differ. It is the same everywhere.
Irrespective of the number of living species, the Brahman does not undergo even the slightest change. The Brahman does not change at any time, be it creation, absorption, annihilation or recreation.
pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidaṁ pūrṇāt pūrṇamadacyate |
pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate ||
पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमदच्यते।
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते॥
The meaning is ‘That (the Brahman) is infinite. This (the universe) is infinite. This (the universe) is only the projection of That (the Brahman). If this (the universe) is taken away, That (the Brahman) remains infinite as before.’
The Brahman does not change during any of His five primary acts. During the annihilation, when the entire universe enters into Him, He remains the same as before. Brahman alone is beyond modifications and is eternal.
248. Aprameyātmā अप्रमेयात्मा
Nāma 46 is Aprameyaḥ.
Aprameya means that one who cannot be measured. Only the Brahman cannot be measured as He is infinite. The Self within is mysterious and inexplicable. What is remaining within as smaller than an atom pervades the entire universe. Hence the Self is described as immeasurable and cannot be known through senses. Even Upaniṣad-s attempt to explain the Brahman only by negations and affirmations. However, Brahman can be experienced. Again the experience is not uniform in everyone.