435. Anirviṇṇaḥ अनिर्विण्णः

Repetitive nāma 892

He is not the one who is filled with melancholy and despondency.  Brahman is always full of everything.  In other words, He does not need anything as everything originates from Him. Hence He is Anirviṇṇaḥ.

436. Sthaviṣṭhaḥ स्थविष्ठः

Repetitive nāma 53

Sthaviṣṭha refers to His Cosmic form, which is beyond normal human comprehension. This is also known as virāt (virāj), meaning supreme. This nāma endorses the saying of the previous nāma. The whole universe is His manifestation and is not different from Him.

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (II.i.4) describes His cosmic form thus: “His head is the heaven, His eyes the moon and the sun, His ears the directions, His speech the Vedas, His breath the wind, His heart the universe, and for the use of His feet, the earth. He is the inmost Self of all beings.”

Bhagavad Gītā chapter XI elaborately dwells on this.

437. Abhūḥ अभूः

Abhū means unborn. He is not born like other beings and He exists right from the beginning and will continue to exist in the future as well. This nāma subtly conveys that Brahman was not born like other beings and He created Himself.

438. Dharmayūpaḥ धर्मयूपः

Yūpa means a sacrificial post.  When animals are offered in yajñā-s, they are tied to post called yūpa. This nāma says that in the same way, all dharma-s are attached to the Brahman. Sacrifice means the sacrifice of materialistic life. Unless one chooses to surrender to Him, realization, which is the ultimate aim of everyone is not possible.

It is also said that all sacrificed animals reach His abode and are born again with His grace.

439. Mahāmakhaḥ महामखः

Mahāmakha means a great sacrifice.  If everything is sacrificed to Him, He will offer liberation. Sacrifice is not an act but a thought process. Sacrifice leads to surrender and ultimate liberation.

The closest comparison is mother’s love towards her children.  A mother sacrifices all her comfort for the sake of her children and does not expect anything in return from them.  In the same way, one has to sacrifice all pleasures and pains to Him, expecting nothing in return. He will bestow liberation on His own accord. Liberation is the ultimate one can attain in this life.

This nāma subtly conveys that surrender is the best way to attain liberation.

440. Nakṣatranemiḥ नक्षत्रनेमिः

Nakṣatranemi is one of the names of Viṣṇu.  It also refers to the pole star (Dhruva star), the moon, the stars, etc. Dhruva also means immovable.  It is believed that star Dhruva controls the movement of other stars. Nemi means felly of a wheel, indirectly referring to a wheel or cakra.

This nāma says that that the whole universe revolves around Viṣṇu who Himself does not revolve.  In other words, Brahman does not move and because of Him, the universe moves. He is like an axle and the universe is like spokes attached to the rim of a wheel.

441. Nakṣatrī नक्षत्री

Nakṣatra as per Vedas is the abode of gods and Yogī-s after death.  Taking the previous nāma forward, constellation of stars is divided into two groups. Certain stars are considered as movable and others as immovable.  Sun or moon is also called nakṣatra.  By addressing Him as Nakṣatra, this nāma confirms His omnipresence.

Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (X.21), “I am the radiant sun among the luminaries and the moon among the stars.”

442. Kṣamaḥ क्षमः

Kṣama means patient. Brahman is embodiment of patience, as He tolerates all the actions that unfold in the earth.  Brahman is seated as the Self in all the beings, merely watching their activities as a witness. He witnesses both good and evil acts that take place due to one’s karma. He patiently watches all the evil acts.

Lord Rāma is an embodiment of patience, like Mother Earth, who is known for Her patience.

443. Kṣāmaḥ क्षामः

Repetitive nāma 854

Kṣāma means burning to ashes and contextually it means annihilation of the universe. The previous nāma said that He is embodiment of patience. When evil prevails over virtues, He annihilates the universe and recreates again. This also goes to prove that He upholds dharma. When the entire universe is annihilated, He alone prevails, as He alone is eternal. 

444. Samīhanaḥ समीहनः

Samīhana means eager.  He is eager to offer liberation to His devotees.  In terms of dualism, it can be said that if the aspirant puts one step forward towards Him, He moves two steps forward towards the aspirant to offer liberation.  

It can also be said that He is eager to create and sustain the universe. He is also eager to slay the evil doers in order to uphold dharma.