489. Bhūtamaheśvaraḥ भूतमहेश्वरः
Bhūta has different meanings. Contextually it can be explained to mean all the living beings in the universe. Lord Viṣṇu is the Chief of all such beings.
This can be further explained as follows. Brahman is the Ultimate and inexplicable and is also known as Self. When the Brahman decides to create the universe, he multiplies Himself as many. When He multiplies out of His own will, He thus becomes an individual soul by means of contraction. As a result of this contraction the Self becomes limited and this state is called individual soul. When one tries to understand that he is a contracted form of the Brahman and begins to realize the Brahman within, the process is called Self-realization. The end of Self-realization is the feeling of oneness with the Brahman.
490. Ādidevaḥ आदिदेवः
Repetitive nāma 334.
This has been explained in detail in nāma 334.
Brahman has not been created by anyone. He has no parentage. He created Himself on His own and from Him, rest of the creations happens. This nāma adores Him by addressing Him as the One, whose origin remains unknown.
491. Mahādevaḥ महादेवः
This nāma is a continuation of the previous nāma. The previous nāma said that His origin remains unknown and this nāma says that He is the Supreme amongst gods. Gods and goddesses are different from the Brahman. Each god or goddess represents different types of divine or natural energies. For example Varuṇa represents water, Agni represents fire, etc. All these energies originate from the Brahman. Hence He is addressed as the Supreme God.
492. Deveśaḥ देवेशः
This nāma endorses the sayings of the previous nāma. Īśa means the Master. He is the Master of all deva-s, i.e. all gods and goddesses.
Bhagavad Gītā explains this further (XI. 37). “O! Mahātma why should they not bow to You? You are the progenitor of Brahmā (the God of creation and is different from Brahman) You are the Greatest of the greats, infinite Lord of celestials, Abode of the universe. You are both existent and non-existent and beyond both. You are the indestructible Brahman.”
493. Devabhṛdguruḥ देवभृद्गुरुः
This nāma reaffirms His Supremacy discussed in the previous nāma. Devabhṛd refers to Indra the chief of all gods and goddesses. Indra worships Viṣṇu as his Guru.
The word Guru has been specifically chosen here to mean Lord Viṣṇu. This confirms the oft repeated saying that there is no difference between the Brahman and one’s guru.
494. Uttaraḥ उत्तरः
Uttara means superior. Since He is the Supreme, He is addressed as Uttara. Uttīrṇa means liberated. He alone can offer liberation by showering His Grace on His sincere devotees. Sincere devotees are those who stay connected with Him, by contemplating on Him all the time. Because He is uttīrṇa, He is addressed as Uttara. Liberation is the ultimate which one can think of and hence it is called supreme.
495. Gopatiḥ गोपतिः
Repetitive nāma 592.
Gopati means chief of cowherds. Contextually cowherds mean all the beings in the universe. This nāma reaffirms His status as the Brahman.
496. Goptā गोप्ता
Repetitive nāma 593.
Goptṛ means the one who protects and cherishes with those who are thus protected. This perfectly fits the explanation of the Brahman. Hence He is addressed as Goptā.
497. Jñānamayaḥ ज्ञानमयः
He is full of knowledge. Taittirīya Upaniṣad (II.1) says, “satyaṁ jñānamanantaṁ brahma सत्यं ज्ञानमनन्तं ब्रह्म”. It says that Brahman is truth, knowledge and infinity. This nāma confirms this.
Brahman can be realised only through spiritual knowledge. Realization happens through different stages. First, one has to be ritualistic. For example, the aspirant is involved in performing pūjā-s. Next he gets initiated into japa-s (recitation of mantras). He begins to perform japa-s. Over a period of time, he reduces his pūjā-s and is more involved with his japa-s. At this time, he begins his quest for realization. He begins his search for a spiritual guru (generally different from a guru who initiates him into mantra) and with the help of his guru he begins to pursue his spiritual path. He moves away from his japa-s to concentrate on meditation and internal exploration. At the appointed time and with His Grace, he realizes the Self within. This transformation happens in fraction of a second and without any prior symptoms. The self becomes the Self and he remains in the state of bliss all the time.
498. Purātanaḥ पुरातनः
Purātana means old, ancient, etc. This nāma says that Brahman is old and exists even today. He is beyond time and is infinite. He alone does not have modifications. All other beings undergo modifications and ultimately perish.
499. Śarīrabhūtabhṛt शरीरभूतभृत्
This is an extension of the common saying that everything originates from the Brahman. For a physical body to exist, five basic elements (ākāśa, air, fire, water and earth) are required. Brahman creates these five elements one after another says Taittirīya Upaniṣad (II.1).
Physical body should not be considered as mere body. It is a temple and the Self within is the sanctum sanctorum. Physical body along with mind is a pre-requisite for a soul to unfold its karmic account. Therefore physical body is also the creation of Brahman with the aid of the five elements and their modifications.
500. Bhoktā भोक्ता
Repetitive nāma-s 143 and 888.
Bhokta is the one who enjoys and this is explained in nāma 143.
Bhokta is the one who enjoys the material world through the five sensory organs, which are nothing but the modifications of five elements discussed in the previous nāma. He uses his sensory organs along with antaḥkaraṇa (mind, intellect, consciousness and ego) to enjoy the materialistic world. When the consciousness of the bhokta is turned outwards, he becomes a materialistic person. Instead if he turns his consciousness within to realize the Self with the help of spiritual knowledge, he becomes a spiritual person. For a bhokta (enjoyer), the thought of karta (doer) is also important. Both bhokta and karta become unified to continue the process of life process, the cause of which is always Brahman.
This nāma says that He is the enjoyer. It is to be remembered that Brahman is omnipresent and consists of both good and bad. If He is good all the time, His omnipresence is under jeopardy.