501. Kapīndraḥ कपीन्द्रः
This nāma salutes the monkeys who helped Him in His incarnation as Śrī Rāma to kill Rāvaṇa. This also could refer to His close aid Hanuman.
This Sahasranāma was rendered by Bhīṣma, when he was on his death bed. Lord Kṛṣṇa was also present at that time. It is interesting to note that Bhīṣma could recollect His incarnation as Śrī Rāma. Bhīṣma’s true devotion is exemplified here.
502. Bhūridakṣiṇaḥ भूरिदक्षिणः
Bhūridakṣiṇa means bestowing rich rewards. This nāma can be explained in two ways. As Brahman, He offers the richest rewards of all, the liberation to those who are sincerely devoted to Him. Second, in His incarnations as human beings such as Śrī Rāma and Kṛṣṇa He offered enough wealth to those who performed rituals to uphold dharma.
Offerings should be made with good thoughts. If donations or offerings are made with second thoughts, it adds up to one’s bad karmas.
503. Somapaḥ सोमपः
Somapa means the one who is entitled to drink soma juice offered in yajña-s. Viṣṇu is the Chief of all yajña-s and as such all soma sacrifices reach Him. This nāma discreetly conveys this.
Further reading: Major Vedic rituals are dedicated to Agni and Soma. Soma (Sarcostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida) is a creeper from which juice is extracted. This juice is non-intoxicant. Generally oblations are made using ghee (clarified butter). But some special oblations are made using soma juice. In both the cases, Vedic mantras are to be recited, without which, Rig Veda says that oblations have no value. There are a number of Vedic verses in praise of Soma. Rig Veda says that Soma is the elixir of life indispensable for both humans and gods. It is also said that original soma creepers are not in existence today and many not-so-good substitutes are currently being used. The fire used in soma rituals is known as āhavanīya.
504. Amṛtapaḥ अमृतपः
Amṛtapa means drinking of nectar. The soma juice referred in the previous nāma is also known as nectar. He drinks soma juice offered in yajña-s as oblations, as He is the presiding Deity of all yajña-s. It is said “yajño vai viṣṇuḥ”, which means Viṣṇu is yajña.
505. Somaḥ सोमः
He is adored as the moon. Many medicinal herbs grow only during moon light. Moon light has many inexplicable properties. The soma creepers referred in nāma 503 grow only in moon light.
Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (XV.13), “Becoming nectarine moon, I nourish all plants.” Kṛṣṇa uses the word rasātmaka, which means ‘consisting of nectar’. This nāma says that He, in the form of moon infuses elixir referred in nāma 503 for sustaining life in the universe.
506. Purujit पुरुजित्
Purujit means conquering many. He is victorious in all the battles against dharma. He conquers the hearts of many, who are sincerely devoted to Him and offer them His Grace and finally the liberation.
In one’s mind there is a persistent battle between dharma and adharma. It is the thought process that decides which becomes victorious. Again thought process is due to the karmic imprints in one’s subconscious mind. If dharma wins, he pursues spiritual path and if adharma wins, he is doomed.
507. Purusattamaḥ पुरुसत्तमः
This nāma subtly conveys that He is present in all the beings as the Soul and also reaffirms His omnipresence. Puru means many sattama means the best or first, etc. He has no parentage and there is no body above Him and hence He is the first or ādi. Without Him, none can exist; hence He is adored as Purusattama. The same meaning is conveyed through one of His most popular names Puruṣottama.
508. Vinayaḥ विनयः
He leads the entire universe by setting examples during His incarnations. Vinaya also means withdrawal. He withdraws His Grace when adharma prevails over dharma causing annihilation.
Generally, He incarnates when there is an urgent necessity to uphold dharma by destroying the evildoers and to protect those who follow the path of dharma.
509. Jayaḥ जयः
He always remains victorious, not just in battles against adharma, but also in conquering the minds of His devotees. Pure devotion leads to His Grace, which is a prerequisite for liberation.
510. Satyasandhaḥ सत्यसन्धः
The resolve of the Brahman comes true all the time. He resolves to create and sustain the universe.
Chāndogya Upaniṣad (VIII.1.v) uses the word satyasaṅkalpa (not satyasandha) to mean ‘commitment to Truth’.
511. Dāśārhaḥ दाशार्हः
It is one of the names of Kṛṣṇa, but pronounced as Daśarna, His clan. He alone is fit to receive any gifts from His devotees as He is perfect in all respects. This explanation subtly conveys the concept of surrender. If a devotee surrenders unto Him, he does not accrue further sins and on the exhaustion of his karma, he is liberated.
512. Sātvatāmpatiḥ सात्वताम्पतिः
Sātvata means an ardent devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa. It is also said that there is a tantra by name Sātvata tantra which prescribes methods to worship Viṣṇu in the form of conversation between Lord Śiva and sage Nārada.
This nāma says that He is the Chief for those who follow this tantra.