634. Arcitaḥ अर्चितः
Arcita means worshipped. He is worshipped not merely by the humans but also by the gods and goddesses. In other words, He is worshipped by those, who are also worshipped by humans as gods and goddesses. For example, Indra, the chief of gods and goddesses worships Him. It can also be explained that the images of His incarnations such as Rāma and Kṛṣṇa are worshipped in the form of idols in the various places of worship.
635. Kumbhaḥ कुम्भः
Kumbha means a small water pot. This nāma says that He holds the universe in Him like a pot holding water within. The universe is compared to water within the pot. Universe is a tiny drop of water before Him. Universe is microcosmic in nature as against His macrocosmic Nature.
636. Viśuddhātmā विशुद्धात्मा
Viśuddha means cleansed or purified. Impurity arises only due to the three guṇa-s. Since Brahman is the embodiment of purity, He is without any guṇa-s, though all these guṇa-s originate from Him.
Guṇa-s can be interpreted as constituent qualities. There are three kinds of guṇa -s. They are sattva, rajas and tamas. Sattva guṇa means quality of purity and knowledge. Rajo guṇa means activity and passion. Tamo guṇa means inertia and ignorance. The Brahman is the embodiment of sattva guṇa, whereas the empirical souls are associated with more of other two guṇa-s. Prakṛtī is the primordial, unmanifested, and the most subtle metaphysical principle that has the potentiality to manifest into an enormous empirical universe. In the process of creation, the universe remains in a potential state within Prakṛtī, so long as the three guṇa-s remain undisturbed. When the equilibrium of the guṇa-s is disturbed, Prakṛtī begins to unfold Her metaphysical categories causing the process of creation.
637. Viśodhanaḥ विशोधनः
Viśoka means cessation of sorrow. When one sincerely contemplates on Him through meditation, He removes his sorrows. Every human being born on this earth has happiness and sorrow in alternate bouts; but the ratio differs from person to person depending upon his/her karmic account. When one surrenders unto Him, he does not experience either. When one contemplates on His form, he forgets about material things and his mind is pervaded by His thoughts alone, relegating all other thoughts. When one is able to perpetually remain in this state, all the dualities in his mind are disssolved and he begins to enter into a state of Bliss. This is called cessation of sorrow.
638. Aniruddhaḥ अनिरुद्धः
Repetitive nāma 185.
In nāma 185, it was said that He cannot be obstructed by anyone in performing His duties. This nāma talks about His fourth manifestation. His four manifestations are known as Vāsudeva, Saṃkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. These four are known as viṣṇu tattva-s and Aniruddha is the Self within all the beings, which is hidden by gross, subtle and causal bodies.
639. Apratirathaḥ अप्रतिरथः
Apratirava means unobstructed. He cannot be obstructed in destroying enemies. This is the grosser meaning of this nāma. This can be explained subtly. Enemies mean the afflictions caused by mind, such as attachment to the material world comprising of desires, anger, hatred, etc. These are the subtle enemies for a spiritual aspirant. When an aspirant determines to seek Him, He showers His Grace and destroys all these subtle and powerful enemies, which are extremely difficult to conquer. His Grace alone can destroy the inner psychic apparatus comprising of mind, intellect and ego. Hence He is adored as Apratirathaḥ.
640. Pradyumnaḥ प्रद्युम्नः
This nāma is the continuation of nāma 638.
Pradyumna means pre-eminent. Nāma 638 said that as Aniruddha, He remains as the Soul within. This nāma says that the Soul is Self-illuminating.
It is also said that when Cupid was burnt by the third eye of Śiva, he was born to Kṛṣṇa and His consort Rukmini. This Pradyumna has nothing to do with this nāma.
641. Amitavikramaḥ अमितविक्रमः
Amitavikrama means unbounded valour. He is omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient. He is the embodiment of valour as there is no one beyond Him. He is the Ultimate. Valour contextually can be explained differently. Generally, it can be explained as the courage to win over the demons. Demons are nothing but perpetual sinners. They have to be destroyed to uphold virtuousness. Unless, virtues prevail over nefariousness, the universe cannot be sustained in the way as it should be. He ensures that all the perpetual sinners are destroyed; hence, He is spoken of as valorous.
It must also be remembered that sinners are also created by Him, on the basis of their karmas. Most of the Scriptures say that all these sinners surrender to Him at the time of their deaths. Viṣṇu, as an embodiment of compassion merge their souls with Him, however subject to their karmas.
642. Kālaneminihā कालनेमिनिहा
Kālanemi is the name of a demon, who was destroyed by Him.
Kālanemi also means the wheel of time (kālacakra कालचक्र), which is associated with spiritual ignorance and illusion. He destroys spiritual ignorance of His true devotees. True devotee is the one who worships Him through his mind. Unless spiritual ignorance is destroyed, Self cannot be realized.
643. Vīraḥ वीरः
Repetitive nāma-s 401 and 658.
He is courageous. Obviously, Brahman is the most courageous in the whole universe. This nāma does not mean the courage associated with humans. It is the exclusive courage of the Creator, who incarnates in the universe exclusively to annihilate those who have demonic qualities.
Kṛṣṇa explains demonic qualities in Bhagavad Gītā (XVI.4) thus: “Hypocrisy, arrogance, pride, anger, sternness and ignorance are the marks of him who is born with demonic nature.” In the next verse He says, “The divine qualities bestow liberation and demonic qualities lead to bondage.” Therefore, demons do not mean those who have terrifying superhuman bodies. Demons are those who have impaired minds.
Viṣṇu, as the compassionate Lord slain their afflicted mental states and make them follow virtuous paths. Hence He is Vīraḥ.
644. Śauriḥ शौरिः
Repetitive nāma 340.
This nāma refers to His lineage. He hails from Śūra clan, which comprises of Yādava, Kṛṣṇa’s grandfather, Vasudeva, father of Kṛṣṇa. All of them are valorous, hence their lineage is known as Śūra (warrior). Therefore He is adored as Śauriḥ. (Planet Saturn is also known as Śauri).
645. Śūrajaneśvaraḥ शूरजनेश्वरः
He is the Lord of all great powers, which includes gods and goddesses. Each god and goddesses has distinctive powers. All these powers are derived from Him.