389. Parardhiḥ परर्धिः
He is the One who has supreme manifestations. This nāma originates from the word ṛddha ऋद्ध, meaning prosperous, abundant, wealthy. Viṣṇu is an embodiment of all these qualities and hence this nāma.
Bhagavad Gītā talks about His supreme forms in chapter XI. The supremacy of the Brahman cannot be seen, but has to be realized only through mind. Seeing is an act that has boundaries and objects seen are perishable, whereas the Lord is beyond boundaries and eternal.
390. Paramaspaṣṭaḥ परमस्पष्टः
Parama means conspicuous and spaṣṭa means clearly perceived, distinctly visible, etc. He is clearly visible to those who seek Him through their minds.
Brahman can be realized only in an un-afflicted mind. Mind will always have too many thoughts at a time. These thoughts will not be formed if one disassociates himself from the end results of all his actions. In other words, if one chooses to surrender unto Him, the concept of doership would be lost paving way to realise His omnipresence. He prevails everywhere.
391. Tuṣṭaḥ तुष्टः
Tuṣṭa means contended. He is the One, who does not expect anything from His devotees except their unsullied devotion.
Brahman does not expect anything from those who pursue spiritual paths, as He is beyond needs and always remains contended. What He expects is purity of mind and perpetual thought about Him. From dualistic point of view, if spiritual person puts one step towards the Brahman, He moves towards the devotee by two steps.
It can also be explained that as He always remain contended, He always remains in the state of Bliss. He can be realized only if the mind of an aspirant remains in the state of bliss.
392. Puṣṭaḥ पुष्टः
He is full, an exclusive quality of the Brahman.
The well known invocation explains this quality.
पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते।
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते॥
pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidaṁ pūrṇāt pūrṇamudacyate |
pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate ||
Brahman is full; this Brahman with names and forms is also full. The fullness comes from that fullness. If the fullness of the fullness is accepted, what is left behind is only fullness.
This can be explained as follows: The invisible Brahman, who is omnipresent, is the cause for all that we see as names, forms and shapes. The latter is also known as the effect. In other words, from the cause emerges the effect, both being Brahman. Cause is pūrṇam and since the effect originates from the cause, which is pūrṇam, the effect is also pūrṇam. When both and effect are pūrṇam, naturally pūrṇam prevails everywhere. This is the omnipresence of the Brahman.
393. Śubhekṣaṇaḥ शुभेक्षणः
Śubhekṣaṇa refers to the One who has auspicious eyes. His mere look alone is capable of conferring auspiciousness. Because of His look, those who desire for material prosperity get the same; but they continue to transmigrate. Those who seek liberation, attain liberation. But as long as attachment to material world persists, liberation cannot be attained.
394. Rāmaḥ रामः
Rāma means pleasing, pleasant, etc and in the pleasing and pleasant nature of the Brahman, Yogī-s reside. Brahman is full of bliss and the great Yogī-s by focussing their minds on Him experience His blissfulness. When they are enjoying His Bliss, they do not need anything. They continue to stay in a rapturous state, unmindful of the needs of their bodies.
One can begin to enjoy His Bliss, if one firmly decides to pursue spiritual path.
395. Virāmaḥ विरामः
Virāma means cessation. Brahman is the Abode of all the individual souls. When the individual souls cease to transmigrate, they merge with Him, not to be born again. Transmigration ceases only if one surrenders unto Him, dissolving the thought of doership.
396. Virajaḥ विरजः
Viraja means, free from passion. When the Yogī-s who perpetually stay connected with Him become free from passions, as discussed in the previous nāma. He is the greatest source of happiness and if one is able to establish connection with Him and consciously stay with Him all the time, obviously the Yogī will not have any earthly passions.
This can be compared to a situation where one is unwilling to come out of an air-conditioned place in peak summer. The hot weather outside is bondage arising due to attachment to the material world and the air-conditioned place is His bliss.
397. Mārgaḥ मार्गः
Repetitive nāma 365.
Mārga means path and contextually it means the path to liberation. One can traverse through the path of liberation only if he attains enough spiritual knowledge.
Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad (VI.15) explains this. It says, “ayanāya anyaḥ panthāḥ na vidyate अयनाय अन्यः पन्थाः न विद्यते”, meaning there is no other way to go. The Scripture subtly conveys that acquiring knowledge is the only path to attain liberation and there is no other way.
Story about a young man: In a holy city, an international conference was arranged to discuss about Self-realisation. Many leading spiritual gurus were invited to participate. The conference was held in a posh hotel. A poor young boy who was living adjacent to the hotel was standing outside the hotel, to have a glimpse of spiritual gurus, who alighted from several plush cars. The boy was not allowed to stand anywhere near the hotel. The boy was arguing with the security. The boy said to the security, “God is everywhere and why should these people discuss about Him by spending so much of money. He is within you and He is within me. When we are looking at the world, we have to look through the eyes of God. Then there is no question of duality. It is as simple as that. These men are not realized souls and I am wasting my time here trying to have a glimpse of these men.” By saying this he walked away. Not only the security, but the organizer, a leading spiritual guru, who was standing at the entrance to welcome the guests were awestruck. What subsequently happened is another story.
398. Neyaḥ नेयः
Neya means to be governed or to be brought to a state. He leads the spiritual seekers to realize Him through the path of liberation as discussed in the previous nāma. There are several states before realizing Him and He helps His true seekers to pass through these different states to attain perfection.
He can be realised through proper meditation. Meditation is a process wherein the impressions of material world is removed gradually, paving way for His realisation. When all the though processes are muted, one’s consciousness becomes pure. This leads to focusing on Him and as a result of which He pervades the mind. Ultimately, the yogī realizes the Brahman in his mind. This is the spiritual path or mārga.
399. Nayaḥ नयः
Naya means leading. Not all the spiritual seekers attain liberation. He leads only those seekers who sincerely make all-out efforts to realize Him.
It can also be said that He leads the entire universe according to the Law of Karma.
400. Anayaḥ अनयः
He does not have a leader. He is the Supreme and beyond Him there is nobody. This refers to the purest state of one’s consciousness, where He is realised as Bliss.