904. Svastibhuk स्वस्तिभुक्
Svasti means happiness, prosperity, well being, etc and bhu means existing. Therefore this nāma says that He exists in the state of happiness, prosperity. He is an embodiment of happiness, etc and when one contemplates on Him, he also attains those qualities. This is often referred to as the state of bliss. When nothing is wanting, the mind remains calm and lucid and this automatically leads to contentment and the resultant inexplicable happiness. When the contemplation is perfect, He showers His Grace on the contemplator, which manifests as bliss that finally liberates him.
905. Svastidakṣiṇaḥ स्वस्तिदक्षिणः
Dakṣiṇa contextually refers to the act of giving and this nāma says that He is the giver of happiness, etc. The previous nāma said that He is an embodiment of these qualities and this nāma says that He gives those qualities.
But there is a subtle conveyance in this nāma. Dakṣiṇa is not the act of giving just like giving alms. Dakṣiṇa (nāma 918) is a reward for somebody’s knowledge and skill. Unless there is knowledge and skill, (which refers to the knowledge about the Self and meditation as far as this nāma is concerned) dakṣiṇa will not be offered. This means that unless one has requisite spiritual knowledge and practice, He cannot shower His Grace on anyone.
906. Araudraḥ अरौद्रः
Raudra means violent, impetuous, wrath, etc and the prefixed ‘a’ negates all these qualities. Raudra is different from Rudra. Raudra is a quality, whereas Rudra-s are a group of eleven gods.
Viṣṇu is considered as the most compassionate God, as He looks after the sustenance of the word. Dualistically speaking, He sees the pains and miseries of the beings and He comes forward on His own, to release the ignorant men from the bondage of māyā. Because of His compassion, He is worshipped in various auspicious forms with His Consort Lakṣmī.
Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad Gītā (XVI.21 & 22), “Desire, anger and greed are the three gates to hell and one should avoid them. Freed from three gates of hell, man works his own salvation and thereby attains Brahman.”
Following is one of the auspicious mantras for both Viṣṇu and Lakṣmī that can be recited daily for auspiciousness and prosperity.
ॐ ह्रीं ह्रीं श्रीं श्रीं लक्ष्मीवासुदेवाय नमः
ॐ hrīṁ hrīṁ śrīṁ śrīṁ lakṣmīvāsudevāya namaḥ
Visualization for this mantra: Goddess Lakṣmī sitting on Viṣṇu’s left side or on His left lap.
907. Kuṇḍalī कुण्डली
Kuṇḍala means earrings and it also means a coil, possibly referring to a coiled serpent. Viṣṇu’s earrings are known as makarakuṇḍala, where makara refers to a sort of crocodile. A few incarnations of Viṣṇu are described with makarakuṇḍala. It is also said that these two earrings represent two aspects of Sāṁkhya Philosophy, sāṁkhya and yoga. Sāṁkhya (of sage Kapila) means enumerating twenty five tattvas (principles) and yoga means union of self with the Self. This nāma probably indicates that He can be realized only through the twenty five tattvas enumerated in Sāṁkhya Philosophy, which is widely practiced now.
908. Cakrī चक्री
Repetitive nāma 995.
The One who has Sudarśana cakra in His hand is called Cakrī. It is said that this cakra (wheel) is capable of moving faster than mind. This is used by Him to annihilate perpetual sinners. There are two versions about the origin of this cakra. First version says that it has been given to Viṣṇu by Śiva and another version says that it has been given to Him by Agni. When Viṣṇu wills, this wheel is capable of moving much faster than the Lord Himself.
909. Vikramī विक्रमी
Repetitive nāma 75.
Vikrama means gait. He always walks like a hero as He is always a winner while fighting against persistent evildoers, who are known as demons. His Supreme Power is reflected in the way in which He walks, hence He is Vikramī.
910. Ūrjitaśāsanaḥ ऊर्जितशासनः
Ūrjita means important and śāsana means command – important or highest commands. His commands are inscribed in Vedas. Vedas can be interpreted both in gross and subtle manner. Gross interpretations are the Vedic rituals such as yajñā-s and subtle interpretations are the Upaniṣad-s, known as the essence of Vedas, which reveal the path of Self realization. Based on these Sacred Scriptures, dharma śāstra-s originated, which laid down precepts for way of living. As the One, who sustains this world, He expects everyone to follow His highest commandments. The habitual violators are annihilated to maintain the proper equilibrium between the good and the bad.
911. Śabdātigaḥ शब्दातिगः
He is beyond sound. Atiga means transgressing. Brahman cannot be explained through sound, meaning that He cannot be explained through words. Hymns in His praise are only the tools to cause devotion in the minds of the seekers.
Taittirīya Upaniṣad (II.4) says that both mind and speech fail to grasp and explain Brahman. Like an ironsmith repeatedly hammering an iron rod to make changes in its shape, mind has to be hammered repeatedly to refine it to realize His full Glory. Singing His praise alone does not lead to liberation. An ordinary mind cannot realize Him; only repeated contemplation alone can help to realize Him, which is known as meditation.
912. Śabadasahaḥ शबदसहः
Powerful words or sound; probably referring to Vedas and its derivatives such as Upaniṣad-s. Understanding Vedas and interpreting them cannot be done without His Grace. The subtle conveyances of Vedas are not revealed to the world for unknown reasons. The nāma says that Brahman is revealed by the powerful words and sounds of Vedas.
The above interpretation is endorsed by Kaṭha Upaniṣad (I.ii.15), which says, “That goal which the Upaniṣad-s praise as the highest …..and it is OM.” OM is the verbal description of Brahman and this Upaniṣad says that OM is Brahman Himself. In OM everything dwells including words and sounds. If OM is recited in the proper way (more emphasis on M with lips closed), one can feel the vibrations within his body.
Bhagavad Gītā (XV.15) says emphatically, “I am the only object worth knowing the Vedas and I am (only Him) the knower of Vedas too.” He knows all the Vedas as all of them originated from Him and He alone can be realized through Vedas and nobody else and thus, His supremacy is clearly established.
913. Śiśiraḥ शिशिरः
Śiśira means cool season. This nāma should be read with the next nāma to have the intended meaning. This nāma says that indulgence in transmigratory activities is like sitting near a huge fire, which is bound to burn. This is further explained in the next nāma.
914. śarvarīkaraḥ शर्वरीकरः
Śarvarī means twilight and kara means causer or maker. He is the cause of the twilight, which is the gross explanation based on the meaning. Twilight is the last rays of light before darkness. Here, darkness is one’s life associated only with the material world and his unwillingness to know the path of spirituality. Brahman gives last hopes to a person, as twilight is the last light before the next dawn. Generally, it is the human tendency to do a work just before the deadline. Similarly, twilight is the last chance to realize His eternal Light.
If the previous nāma is interpreted along with this nāma, then the previous nāma means that by attaining true knowledge, one can move away from the burning (sufferings) material life to cool (blissful state leading to ultimate realization) spiritual life. Moving to an air-conditioned place alone can explain the hot external climate. As long as one continues to stay in the hot climate, the pleasantness and comfort of the air-conditioner cannot be realized. That is why Brahman is often explained through comparisons and negations in Upaniṣad-s.
This concept is beautifully explained by Kṛṣṇa in Bhagavad Gītā (II.69). “When it is night to all the beings, Yogī is awake and everybody is awake, it is night for the Yogī.” This explains the firmness of the mind (sthitaprajña) of the Yogī.
915. Akrūraḥ अक्रूरः
Krūra means cruel and the prefix ‘a’ negates this quality and therefore, akrūra means not cruel. When a person’s mind is not entirely afflicted with desires, anger, attachments, etc, which clearly evidence non-sthitaprajña state of mind (sthitaprajña refers to the one who has a firm mind and non-sthitaprajña means the one whose mind is still afflicted by desires, attachments, etc; this is the stage he begins to make progress in realizing Him), he has a very long way to traverse to reach the destination of his spiritual path. Commencement of spiritual journey has to happen at some point of time. Many in the world do not even make efforts to enter into the spiritual path, leaving aside his ritualistic worship. This is due to the unwillingness of the mind to transform. This is the most difficult transition point in one’s life and this can happen only if he gets His Grace. At the end of the spiritual journey, He is realized in the form of compassion, love, etc which clearly get reflected in the character of the person concerned. Further journey from this point leads to the state of bliss and ultimate point is the realization. This type of transition alone can lay a strong foundation to realize Him.
916. Peśalaḥ पेशलः
Peśala has innumerable meanings such as adorned, charming, tender, skilful, cleaver, etc and each of these qualities perfectly describes His different aspects. Peśala also means disingenuous, which is not generally described as one of the qualities of Brahman. As has been repeatedly said earlier, Brahman is not an embodiment of good qualities alone and if this is alone is accepted, His omnipresent nature becomes questionable. The nature of the Brahman depends upon how He is explained by sages and saints and the manner in which one perceives Him. This underlines the theory that what one thinks, he becomes that. No rituals need to be practiced and one need not be an ascetic to realize Him. It is only the un-afflicted mind that alone matters in realizing Him.
917. Dakṣaḥ दक्षः
Repetitive nāma 423.
This nāma says that He strengthens the intellectual faculties of those who contemplate Him. When one wants to attain Him, He does not hesitate to make him a sthitaprajña, the most important stage in reaching the final goal of realising Him.
918. Dakṣiṇaḥ दक्षिणः
He is straightforward and candid. These are a few of the several attributes of Brahman. Brahman has two main attributes - saguṇa and nirguṇa, former referring to Brahman with attributes and qualities and the latter referring to Brahman beyond explanation. Whenever Self is referred, it means only the Brahman without attributes or nirguṇa Brahman. While upholding the universe, He attains the form of saguṇa Brahman and this form of Brahman is described with various qualities and attributes and this nāma says that He is straightforward and candid. He only goes by the “Law of Karma”, His own law to create, sustain and destroy the world.